A History and Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education 6Th Edition By Robert Mechikoff – Test Bank


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A History and Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education 6Th Edition By Robert Mechikoff – Test Bank

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Test Bank Chapter 2

Sumer, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica


Multiple Choice


  1. What cultural interests do ancient and modern civilizations share

in common?

  1. admiring athletic ability and physical fitness.
  2. participating in athletic competition.
  3. the desire to play.
  4. All of the above.
  5. None of the above.

Answer: D


  1. Historians, sociologists, and anthropologists have long noted the

significance of physical ability and physical expression. As a

result, they have reached which of the following conclusion:

  1. The quest for survival during ancient times–and

modern time–was and is in some way facilitated in our

desire to play.

  1. Play was indeed important, but only members of the aristocracy

were permitted to play. Children who were not members of the

aristocracy were prohibited from engaging in play.

  1. The human race evolved, not because of anything that physical

ability and the expression of play may have contributed, but due

to mere chance and luck and nothing more.

  1. Physical expression and physical ability has no direct or

indirect connection to the work of Charles Darwin who is credited

for developing the theory of evolution.

  1. None of the above.

Answer: A


  1. In the ancient world–as it is in the modern world–survival of an

individual, community, or nation depended in part on

  1. physical prowess – physical fitness of the inhabitants.
  2. highly skilled and disciplined warriors and soldiers.
  3. a physical education program that provided instruction in

traditional military skills such as endurance running,

wrestling, and swimming to name a few.

  1. holding athletic competitions that highlighted “combat sports”

such as the javelin throw, foot races, archery, and boxing.

  1. All of the above.

Answer: E




  1. According to Johan Huizinga, the author of Homo Ludens (loosely

translated as meaning “Man the Player”), the reason that humans engage

in play and related activities is because it is

  1. enjoyable and fun
  2. the one activity that separates humans from animals.
  3. deeply religious and therefore provides meaning to life.
  4. All of the above.
  5. None of the above.

Answer: A


  1. The Sumerians
  2. inhabited an area in the ancient world known as Mesopotamia which

today is known as Iraq.

  1. developed cuneiform writing over 5,000 years ago which

revolutionized the way people communicated.

  1. developed an intricate political and economic system.
  2. engaged in warfare as did most of the other political entities during

this time.

  1. All of the above.

Answer: E


  1. The “athletic” Sumerian king who is thought to have ruled during the

twenty-seventh century B.C. was

  1. Heracles.
  2. Gilgamesh.
  3. David.
  4. Malimesh the Great.
  5. None of the above.

Answer: B


  1. The Assyrian warrior-king Assurbanipal
  2. was known to lead his troops into battle.
  3. was a superb hunter.
  4. was honored with odes and citations that demonstrated that in the

ancient world, there was a strong connection between sport and


  1. claimed to have personally killed 1,000 lions.
  2. All of the above.

Answer: E







  1. Archeologists excavating the ancient city of Sumer have learned that
  2. artifacts uncovered during the Early Dynastic period of Sumerian

civilization (3000-1500 B.C.) provide evidence that sports and games

were played.

  1. combat sports such as boxing and wrestling date from around 2,000 B.C.
  2. the Sumerians enjoyed fishing and boating.
  3. the Sumerians enjoyed playing board games and children played with

toy chariots and boats.

  1. All of the above.

Answer: E



  1. Archeological evidence reveals that the Sumerians had two different views about the value or worth of                           the body.

A         Kings married a goddess each year to insure that their time on earth was of “godlike” quality and so                                everything about them, including their body and physical attributes had value.

B             Ordinary people who lived in Sumer had little if any value so their body and whatever

physical attributes they possessed were meaningless.

C         The Sumerians were heavily influenced by Greek thought and culture and held the

body in high esteem and featured it – the human body — in their art.

D         The Sumerians believed that the body and attendant physical ability were essential elements in their                                 culture and       encouraged ordinary people to excel in athletic contests.

  1.       A and B only.

Answer: E


  1. Egypt
  2. traces its origins back almost 2,000 years ago where it was a

small village along the Red Sea.

  1. had monarchs that engaged in sporting activities in order to present

themselves to the people as powerful and capable rulers.

  1. Egyptian monarchs ideally were able to demonstrate their ability as

an athlete, warrior, and hunter.

  1. B and C only.
  2. All of the above.

Answer: D


  1. The Egyptians were known in the ancient world to
  2. have built grand palaces, streets, and monuments which were among

the grandest in the land.

  1. quite possibly developed the science of medicine.
  2. have a social structure that included the wealthy, common citizens,

and slaves.

  1. be superb warriors.
  2. All of the above.

Answer: E


  1. Archeologists know that the Egyptians
  2. enjoyed participating in sporting activities because of the countless

artifacts that have been discovered as well as the paintings that were

found in tombs

  1. believed in “life after death” and members of the nobility and the

wealthy who were able to construct magnificent tombs were buried

with those items that were to give them pleasure and comfort in the

next life. Among these items were sporting implements.

  1. were pagans who did not worship any god or gods and as a result,

found no use for physical expression or a need for sports.

  1. A and B only.
  2. None of the above.

Answer: D


  1. Wealthy Egyptians
  2. enjoyed boating on the Mississippi River.
  3. flogging slaves in the market
  4. enjoyed swimming in their own swimming pools at home.
  5. All of the above.
  6. None of the Above.

Answer: C


  1. In ancient Egypt
  2. the demand for physical labor was never-ending.
  3. life was harsh and difficult away from the large cities.
  4. individual survival depended in large part on physical fitness, health,

and luck.

  1. festivals and religious observation provided a break from the harsh

physical demands of farming and fishing.

  1. All of the Above.

Answer: E


  1. The Egyptians had a reputation
  2. as superb warriors.
  3. for being able to mobile the entire population to serve as slaves.
  4. for their humanitarian methods of training their soldiers.
  5. for using women and children as front line soldiers.
  6. All of the above.

Answer: A







  1. Young Egyptian men of the aristocracy
  2. enlisted as foot soldiers rather than in the chariot corps.
  3. were placed in the barracks where they were physically beaten.
  4. became proficient as archers so they would be among the last to

to face the enemy.

  1. A and C only.
  2. None of the Above.

Answer: E


  1. As far as recreational activities, the Egyptians enjoyed
  2. Greek wrestling, especially the Pancration.
  3. organized rowing contests on the Ganges River.
  4. music, singing, and dancing.
  5. All of the Above.
  6. None of the Above.

Answer: C


  1. Many Egyptian Pharaohs took an active part in what festival that featured physical fitness and                                   athletic ability?

A         Ancient Cairo Festival of Athletic Supremacy

B         Festival to honor the Nile God Shiva

                   C         The Heb Sed Festival

  1.                    The Sports Festival at Karnak

E         The Olympic Games in Greece

Answer: C


  1. The Pharos Seti and Ramses
  2. Were able to eventually defeat Moses and celebrated by establishing funeral games

that featured athletic competitions and feats of strength.

  1.         Eventually were defeated by Moses and granted Moses and the Israelites their freedom
  2.                     Are depicted as athletes on the mural paintings in their tombs

                   D.         B and C only

  1.          None of the above

Answer: D


20.Historically, China

  1. dates from the beginning of the Christian era – circa 46 A.D.
  2. enjoyed organized sports that began in 618 A.D.
  3. never achieved a standard of living remotely close to that enjoyed in the West.
  4. All of the above.
  5. None of the above.

Answer: E





  1. In China
  2. physical culture has been traced as far back as Peking Man, who lived

over 500,000 years ago.

  1. there is strong evidence that the ancient Chinese were swift

runners and good hunters.

  1. cave paintings exist that are over 3,000 years old and depict dancing and other

physical activities.

  1. a dance was developed in ancient times that was used to treat

diseases of the legs and feet .

  1. All of the above.

Answer: E


  1. Which of the following is true? The Chinese
  2. trained knights to drive chariots.
  3. Chinese chariots were solidly built but lacked ornamentation.
  4. sent the chariots racing into battle after the infantry attacked.
  5. relied heavily of women to drive the chariots so the men could

be used in the infantry.

  1. None of the above.

Answer: A


  1. Chinese serving in the infantry
  2. would depend upon their prowess as an athlete, luck, and

skill in using the weapons of war to survive.

  1. enjoyed a position of honor, especially if they were drawn from the

ranks of the “ordinary population” because it was a sign of devotion.

  1. were almost always spared when captured by the enemy because of  their special status.
  2. All of the above.
  3. None of the above.

Answer: A


  1. In China
  2. women who danced were not as highly valued as they were in Egypt.
  3. hunting was not a popular pastime.
  4. the ruler Shih Hu was a superb hunter and archer, and

maintained an entire battalion of women soldiers who were clothed in

furs and carried bows that were painted yellow.

  1. the wealthy lived in houses that were equipped with baths, heaters,

mechanical fans and rooms that were cooled using ice.

  1. C and D only.

Answer: E





  1. The Chinese
  2. enjoyed the sport of boxing.
  3. developed martial arts which was the result of Chinese philosophy

and the need to train skilled warriors.

  1. played a form of football.
  2. watched men and women aristocrats play polo during the T’ang and Dynasties.
  3. All of the above.

Answer: E


  1. Which of the following is true?

in approximately A.D. 1070, a boxing teacher named Chio Yaun Shang Jen incorporated 170

movements into boxing.

  1. Chio Yaun Shang Jen wrote a set of training rules for boxers.
  2. according to Chio Yaun Shang Jen, a good boxer would follow a vegetarian diet,                                            become self-disciplined, and control his sexual urges.
  3. all of the above.
  4. A and B only.

Answer: D


  1. Which of the following is false? The ancient Chinese
  2. identified ten types of military skills.
  3. the ten military skills reflected the various elements of yin and yang, the                                                           positive and negative forces that the Chinese believe exist in nature.
  4. over time, the martial arts incorporated jingluoxue, which was the science of

attending to the main and collateral channels found in the body and became the

mainstay of Chinese medicine.

  1. A and B .
  2. none of the above.

Answer: D


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. the “perfect circle,” in the form of a ball, is at the core of some of the most contested

athletic competitions in both the ancient and modern world.

  1. as a cultural mainstay, ballgames were very popular in antiquity.
  2. in Mesoamerica, a ball game known as ulama was a cultural and religious                                                                     experience for             spectators, religious leaders, and athletes.
  3. Mesoamerica is a term used to distinguish the inhabitants of a particular part of the                                                      Americas from the Indians  who lived in neighboring areas.
  4. All of the above.

Answer: E







  1. In regard to ulama, which of the following is true?
  2. it was played with a ball made of animal skin that was stuffed with fine sand.

B                     teams were chosen by female priestess who selected males between the ages of 16 and 26.

  1. each team had 8 athletes.
  2. teams were assigned certain colors that would enable the fans to identify athletes with                                                particular teams.
  3. None of the above.

Answer: E


  1. Ulama was
  2. played with a rubber ball
  3. played by the Olmecs beginning around 1800 B.C.
  4. played by the pre-Columbian Maya’s, the Totonacs, and the Aztecs.
  5. All of the above.
  6. B and C only.

Answer: D


  1. In regard to ulama, which of the following is true?
  2. the game must have been very fast because of the composition of the ball.
  3. may have been the precursor to the modern game of jai alai which is very popular in                                         Mexico and Central America today.
  4. when Columbus sailed to the Americas, he watched a ball game that was being                                                played on an island in the  Caribbean that utilized a rubber ball.
  5. when Columbus sailed back to Spain, he returned with a rubber ball which nobody in                                      Europe had ever  seen before.
  6. All of the above.

Answer: E


  1. In Mesoamerica, which of the following is false?
  2. ball games were played on fields and ball courts that date from as far back as 1500 B.C.

B.ball games were played using skulls attached to sticks to strike the ball as well as athletes using their head and feet to propel  the ball in a similar way that modern soccer players do.

  1. The archeological site of Chichen Itza in Southern Mexico contains a large intact                        tlachtmalacatl (ball court) with a stone ring attached to the wall that served as a goa
  2. Ulama was a competitive ball game that had strong religious overtones.

E All of the above

Answer: B








  1. Ulama was associated with human sacrifice.
  2. True
  3. False

Answer: A


  1. The ball court in Chichen Itza, archeological evidence indicates that there were ritual beheadings of                         athletes who played ulama.
  2. True
  3. False

Answer: A


  1. Interpretation of the archeological evidence at the Casa Colorada ball court in Chichen Itza                                  suggests that the captain of the winning team in the ulama competition might beheaded as the                           ultimate blood sacrifice to the gods. The entire winning team could also loose their heads as the                                  ultimate sacrifice as well.
  2. True
  3. False

Answer: A


  1. The Mayas who played ulama used a bat similar to that used in modern day baseball to hit the ball                         through the stone ring.



Answer: B


  1. The Spanish explorer, Hernando Cortes, watched the natives of Mesoamerica playing ulama and                          was so       fascinated by the game and their athletic ability of the athletes that he took them back to                          Spain where they demonstrated the sport at the court of King Charles V in 1528.
  2. True
  3. False

Answer: A


Test Bank

Chapter 4



Multiple Choice

Correct answer is highlighted.


  1. The origins of Etruscan civilization
  2. Are documented by the Greek historian Herodotus
  3. May have its genesis in Asia Minor
  4. May have started in Italy to begin with
  5. May have its origins in the Northern Alps because Etruscan inscriptions

have been discovered there.

  1. All of the above


  1. Most of the information available to scholars and others interested in Etruscan sport and physical activity are obtained from which of the following sources?
  2. Excavations of burial tombs
  3. Revealed in paintings and murals that adorn burial tombs
  4. Through artifacts such as bronze statues that depict athletes
  5. Excellent parchments and other written records that provide detailed accounts of Etruscan rituals and sporting events
  6. A, B, and C only.


  1. With regard to the Etruscans, which of the following is true?
  2.    Archeologists discovered a well preserved tomb that has numerous murals, paintings, and artifacts that depict various sports and athletes engaged in competition called the Tomb of the Olympic Games.
  3. Evidence indicates that Etruscan women would engage in wrestling matches against men.
  4. Etruscans would frequently compete against Greek athletes
  5. All of the above

E.        A and B only


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. The most popular sport enjoyed by the Etruscans was chariot racing.
  3. The Etruscans had no problem killing prisoners of war or other condemned individuals as a way to provide public entertainment.
  4. Etruscans engaged in combat sports in which the contestants were armed and fought to the death.
  5. Etruscans would often design their cities centered around an area where games and athletic competitions would take place.

E.                 All of the above


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. The origins of Rome can be traced to a small community that pre-

dated Rome called Latuim located near the Tiber River.

  1. In 509 B.C., Romans defeated the Etruscans and formed the Roman

Republic which was governed by an aristocratic oligarchy.

  1. The Roman Republic lasted until 146 B.C., the year that Rome finally

conquered Greece.

  1. The Roman Empire was established in 27 B.C. and lasted until 476 A.D.
  2. All of the above.


  1. The Roman Empire was
  2. ultimately divided into two geographical regions, the Western

Empire centered in Rome, the Eastern or Byzantine Empire,

located in Constantinople.

  1. significantly influenced by Greek culture.
  2. was governed by a succession of Emperors.
  3. All of the above.
  4. None of the above.


  1. The Emperor Nero
  2. Resisted the influence of Greek culture
  3. Unlike earlier emperors, preferred the company of his fellow Romans

to that of the Greeks

  1. Set out to destroy Greece and the cultural legacy of its people
  2. All of the above
  3. None of the above


  1. The Romans
  2. enjoyed elaborate buildings that were quite large.
  3. looked with disdain upon Romans who built lavish houses and

attended gladiatorial spectacles.

  1. revered Nero as one of the finest emperors that the Empire ever had.
  2. B and C only.
  3. None of the above.


  1. Nero
  2. built the Golden House to “show off” his stature and position.
  3. believed he was a gift to Rome from the gods.
  4. insisted that the Greeks hold a special Olympic Games so he could compete.
  5. was crowned an Olympic champion in the chariot race, even though he fell out of the chariot
  6. All of the above.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. The Romans displayed the same cultural genius and intellectual

acumen that the Greeks did.

  1. Most Romans were in agreement with the idea of emphasizing the all-

around development, the individual that reflected  the aesthetic and

educated ideals that were made famous by the Greeks.

  1. The Romans were known as pragmatic and utilitarian and

emphasized the practical and purposeful.

  1. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans were monotheistic.
  2. All of the above.


  1. During the Empire, many number of “blue collar” Romans
  2. rejected the mythological “businesslike” gods of the state.
  3. embraced Christianity.
  4. chose life without religion and turned to the post–

Aristotelian Schools of Philosophy for guidance and understanding.

  1. discussed the same profound metaphysical questions as the

Greeks did.

  1. All but D.


  1. During the Empire
  2. the philosopher’s task was to provide the individual with a code

of conduct based upon a certain spiritual and moral

independence in much the same way that priests did in the

Christian world.

  1. The concept of society was cosmopolitan and multicultural.
  2. The Philosophical-Directors provided an orientation based upon

the beliefs of Zeno and Epicutus which emphasized ethical and

practical conduct.

  1. All of the above.
  2. None of the above.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. During the fourth and third centuries B.C., the Republic was seen as an

ordered civilization where economic and political freedom existed.

  1. During the fourth and third centuries B.C., the influence of religion on

education was significant and moral and military training was

considered more important than intellectual achievement.

  1. During the Roman Empire, Romans were encouraged to use

information obtained from religion and philosophy to answer

questions they had about the “meaning of life.”

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and B only.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. At the foundation of Roman civilization was an ordered, pragmatic, utilitarian focus on the purposeful and practical.
  3. Romans were results oriented, deliberate, and methodical in their acceptance of civic responsibilities and duties.
  4. With the exception of some of the literate and refined members of the upper class who were significantly influenced by Greek culture, most Romans did not identify with the abstract, aesthetic, and harmonious / “moderation in all things” approach to life philosophy of the Greeks.

D.    All of the above

  1. A and B only.


  1. The Stoic philosophy
  2. was established by Zeno.
  3. believed that knowledge was based on sense-perception.
  4. elevated the philosophical position of the body as important
  5. emphasized personal conduct and the attainment of personal

happiness–no matter what life did to them, Stoics remained


  1. All of the Above.


  1. Stoic Philosophy
  2. was grounded in a sense of Individualism.
  3. did not appeal to Romans.
  4. was criticized by the Roman Seneca because it ignored the

teaching of personal conduct.

  1. All of the above.
  2. None of the above.


  1. Epicureanism
  2. was similar to Stoicism because it rejected metaphysical or religious

claims on one’s behavior.

  1. rejected Plato’s idealism that elevated mind over body by arguing

that the body and the senses are indeed “real” and are the best way to

“know” reality.

  1. Elevated the philosophical position of the body and its role in the

epistemological process–how we come to know things (reality).

  1. Believed that the ideas and practice of friendship, peace, contentment,

nobility, and pleasure are the objects of knowledge–pleasure is but

one result of Epicurean philosophy.

  1. All of the above.


  1. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.)
  2. was banished from Rome for his criticism of Julius Caesar, Pompey, &


  1. became a social critic of Roman sports which he believed were

emblematic of the larger social and political problems of Rome.

  1. was very concerned with ethics and how man can attain the highest

moral virtue.

  1. was a great Roman orator and philosopher.
  2. All of the above.


  1. Antiochus
  2. believed it is very important to totally develop one’s capacities. As a

result the development of mind and body was essential.

  1. developed an ethical system that sought the achievement of the

ultimate good which he believed was the ability to live in accordance

with nature.

  1. was a Greek philosopher who advocated a philosophy that was

attractive to the Stoic attitude of the Romans.

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and B only.


  1. The physical and “sporting” activities of the Romans
  2. revolved around “physical exercises – physical education” during the early years of the Republic.
  3. evolved into massive spectacles of entertainment, debauchery, and

carnage during the Empire.

  1. included ball games, spending time in the baths or engaging in mild

exercise tossing various balls back and forth to loosen the joints and increase range of motion.

  1. for the most part, was not at all similar to the intense, strenuous activities engaged in by the Greeks in the palastras and gymnasiums.
  2. All of the above.


  1. The Romans
  2. believed in the value and utility of health gymnastics.
  3. believed that the maintenance of health was a worthwhile and

natural goal.

  1. employed Greek physicians in order to provide instruction in health

related exercises.

  1. All of the above.
  2. None of the above.


  1. The Romans
  2. paid homage to their gods to ensure a bountiful harvest, curry their

favor much like the Greeks did with their gods.

  1. engaged in footraces, ball playing, equestrian displays, and wrestling in

order to exhibit their athletic skills to their gods who were believed to

be in attendance during religious holidays when these activities


  1. believed that they were divinely selected to rule the world. As a result.

they developed a very pragmatic and utilitarian physical training

program so their soldiers could defeat the enemy in battle.

  1. All of the above.
  2. B and C only.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. In Rome, the training of youth had but one purpose: to make them

obedient, disciplined, and ready to become a warrior.

  1. The Roman Legion adopted the same physical training program that

the Greek warrior-athletes used.

  1. War was the prestige profession of the Romans. It was not unusual

for them to utilize brutal methods for training the body.

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and C only.


  1. Cladius Galen (A.D. 130-200)
  2. was one of the first physicians to combine medicine and biomechanics

to form the “science of exercise.”

  1. was a Greek physician who achieved fame because he had great success treating wounded gladiators so they could continue fighting.
  2. was very knowledgeable in the surgical procedures of the day and the

use of drugs to assist the healing process.

  1. believed that professional athletes did not have much of an intellect

and spend their lives over exercising, overeating, and oversleeping like pigs.

  1. All of the above.


  1. Cladius Galen
  2. believed that exercise would benefit both the body and the mind.
  3. believed that the Greek athletics and exercises were better than the

approach used by the Romans to condition the body.

  1. believed that both vigorous and violent exercises were beneficial.
  2. All of the above.
  3. A and B only.


  1. According to Cladius Galen
  2. the best gymnastic exercises of all are those that not only exercise

the body but also bring delight to the mind.

  1. the development of the body must be done in a harmonious way.
  2. running should be discouraged because it wears a person thin and

causes some parts of the body to be overtaxed.

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and B only.


  1. In general, Greek athletics – athletic –
  2. were not popular during the era of the Republic because of the formal

approach that the Greeks required.

  1. were not valued militarily by the utilitarian Romans.
  2. what little appealed existed for Greek athletics was found in

the refined, leisured and literate Romans, not the middle class.

  1. enjoyed some success during the time between the late Republic and the early years of the Empire because some of the Emperors of this era saw value in Greek athletics and built baths that also contained palaistrai.
  2. All of the above.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. In the first century A.D., the Emperor Domitan instituted races that

featured young women during the he Capitoline Games in Rome.

  1. The “Romanized” Olympic Games in Syria featured women


  1. There are historical accounts that women engaged in weight training

exercises in order to tone muscles.

  1. Women competed as gladiators.
  2. All of the above.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. During the time of the Republic, holidays emerged from simple religious

occasions and agricultural offerings into elaborate games and

spectacles that were financed by the government.

  1. During the Republic and the Empire, the government introduced official

sporting events. When this occurred, all businesses were closed and

admission to these “games and spectacles” were usually free.

  1. Only during the early period of the Republic did Romans actually

participate in games and sports. During the remaining years of the

Republic and during the Empire, Rome became a nation of spectators.

  1. Romans enjoyed watching slaves and professional athletes compete

while also taking delight in watching the less fortunate Christians,

criminals, and political prisoners participate unwillingly in the games.

  1. All of the above.


  1. According to historian J. Carcopino who wrote Daily Life in Ancient Rome

the Romans

  1. engaged in despicable behavior as a result of the executions that

occurred in the Colosseum.

  1. actually enjoyed the massive executions that occurred in the


  1. turned the Colosseum into a torture chamber and human

slaughter house under the guise of athletics.

  1. All of the above.
  2. None of the above.


  1. The Romans
  2. did not use sporting events as a catalyst for developing physical

education like the Greeks did.

  1. did not like the individual athletic contests that the Greeks

participated in.

  1. developed “games and spectacles” into large scale shows that

were designed to entertain spectators. This was contrary to the

Greek notion of athletics that used sports and games as an

opportunity for citizens to compete and to demonstrate physical


  1. All of the above.
  2. None of the above.


  1. During the Empire and the Republic
  2. politicians sponsored games and spectacles for political ends.
  3. the process by which Roman politicians panderes to the masses

by sponsoring games and spectacles came to be known as

“panem et circenses” also known as “bread and circuses.”

  1. politicians in Rome provided spectacular and often bloody events,

and fed the spectators in exchange for their support.

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and C only.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. The brutal games and spectacles that the Romans enjoyed may have

been in part the result of the religious rituals of the Etruscans.

  1. From time to time, the Etrucsans made their prisoners fight each

other to death, like gladiators.

  1. Roman emperors set aside one day after another as official holidays

that were devoted to watching games and spectacles.

  1. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 135 days out of the year were

devoted to festivals and at one point, 17 of the 29 days in April were

to be spent at the circus, amphitheater, or theater.

  1. All of the above.


  1. The Circus Maximus in Rome
  2. was the premier hippodrome in the Roman Empire
  3. attracted men, women, and Christians.
  4. was where two Roman Emperors, Nero and Califula, raced


  1. could accommodate approximately 250,000 spectators.
  2. All of the above.


  1. In regard to gladiators, which of the following is true?
  2. the term gladiator originates from a weapon called a “gladius.”
  3. gladiators were divided into 4 specialties and would fight each other as spectators placed bets on who would survive.
  4. not all gladiator combats ended in death, gladiators were expensive to train and their owners did not want to loose their investment.
  5. some freemen desired to live the life of the gladiator, these individuals were known as auctorati and entered into an arrangement with a lanista, an entrepreneur, who bought and sold gladiators.
  6. All of the above.


  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. The growth of Christianity had a profound impact on sport.
  3. Both Jews and the early Christians came into contact with adherents

of Greek and Roman sport.

  1. Christian writers were quite knowledgeable about sport and would use

metaphors from Greek sport.

  1. All of the above.
  2. A and B only.


True/ False


__F__37.         The early leaders in the Christian church were opposed to the care of

the body or health promotion.


__T__38.         The early leaders of the Christian church condemned Roman sports.


__T__39.         Christian writers targeted both Christians and non-Christians because

they continued to attend the immoral and hideous displays of sport

in Rome.


__T__40.         Since they were the “victims” of Roman sport, Christians were the

dominant force that opposed the carnage associated with the games

and spectacles of ancient Rome.


__T__41.         The Roman sport of chariot racing was so popular that it was

adopted by Christians in the Byzantine Empire and remained popular

for centuries.


  T     42.          The Byzantine Empire survived the Fall of Rome and lasted until 1453.


   F    43.          The Romans were every bit as intellectual and culturally oriented as the      Greeks were.


__F__44.         The Greeks were very receptive to the introduction of Roman sports.


   F    45.          Most Romans were quite comfortable with the all-around development of man that reflected the aesthetic and educated aspects of Greek culture.


  T     46.          The Roman gods and goddesses were essentially Greek ones, with a few    name changes.


  T     47.          Roman gladiator venues (arenas) and attendant combats could be found as

far north as England, as far  south as North Africa and as far east as Turkey.


  T     48.          The Stoics, as opposed to the epistemological beliefs of Plato and

Socrates, believed that knowledge was based on sense-perception.


  T     49.          Wiedeman argues that the demise of gladiatorial combats may have been

caused by the competing concept of the Christian concept of resurrection which eventually prevailed over the gladiator idea of resurrection – fight well in the arena and you will “live” / be resurrected, to fight another day.


  F     50.          The Roman military embraced the Greek model of athletic competition       because it developed the “team unity” the Romans demanded.


  F     51.          The primary location for military instruction in Rome was the Colosseum.


  T     52.          The Romans were prejudiced towards the nudity of the Greek athletics.


  T     53.          Apparently, it was only during the era of the early Republic that Romans    actually participated, as opposed to spectated, in athletics.


   T    54.          Roman games and spectacles served the utilitarian function of pacification             and a way to keep the masses entertained.


   T    55.          Roman leaders feared that bored citizens may revolt against the government. As a result, they provided entertainment for the citizens in the form of athletic spectacles.


  F     56.          The growth of Christianity had no impact whatsoever on Roman sport.


  F     57.          During the Empire, Christian writers had no interest in Roman “Games       and Sport.” They choose to write about other concerns and were not the   least bit interested in what went on in the Colosseum or other similar          venues.


_T_   58.          The Romans adopted various Etruscan customs and practices


_T_  59.           There is credible evidence that both men and women competed as gladiators.


_T_  60.           There were several Roman emperors who lived from the first century to the third century A.D. who enjoyed Greek sport and spend a lot of money to restore Olympia which had been destroyed during the Roman conquest of Greece.


_F_  61.           The Greek city of Corinth eagerly embraced the introduction of Roman sport to their city and many citizens soon began training as gladiators.


_T_  62.           Although gladiators who displayed courage, bravery, and fought well were admired by many Romans for their skill, these same Romans cared very little about the “future” of these trained killers since the fate of the gladiator was to provide the masses with entertainment and die in the arena.


_T_ 63.            The term MUNUS is Latin for “duty” and was initially used to justify the spilling of blood to honor an ancestor by his descendants. The first recorded gladiator combat took place in 264 B.C. as part of a MUNUS.


_ T _ 64.          LUDI is the Roman/Latin term for games.


__F_ 65.          Josephus was a Jewish historian who wrote about the athletic competitions the Spartan King Herod staged in Newport Beach.


__F_66.           According to Josephus, the Jews of King Herod’s time were supportive of Greek and Roman athletic competitions and frequently entered the running events.


__T 67.            King Herod attracted athletes to his athletic competitions with the lure of valuable prizes if they won.



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