A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank


Pay & Download



A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

 Sample Questions

Instant Download With Answers

chapter 02

  1. Multiple Choice


NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

1, 10, 15, 20, 29, 42, 44, 48



  1. Chapter 2 opens with the Ebbinghaus quote about psychology having a short past but a long history. What did Ebbinghaus mean?
  2. he meant that it was important for psychology to break completely with philosophy in order

to become scientific

  1. he meant that the issues of interest to psychologists could be traced to ancient times
  2. he meant that psychology really has a lengthy history, but most people don’t remember any

of it so they believe that psychology has just a short history

  1. he meant that most psychologists don’t appreciate the importance of studying psychology’s



  1. Which of the following true about a heliocentric view of the universe?
  2. it was rejected by Galileo on the basis of his telescopic observations
  3. it assumes that the earth is at the center of the universe
  4. it was the official view of the Church in the 17th century
  5. it eventually replaced the geocentric view


  1. Copernicus published his heliocentric view of the universe in 1543. Another event occurred that year, which led one historian to consider 1543 to be the year when modern science was born. What was the other event?
  2. Vesalius published his treatise on anatomy
  3. Gutenberg invented the printing press
  4. Harvey discovered that the heart acted like a pump
  5. Galileo invented a telescope


  1. Sir Francis Bacon, who became a hero to B. F. Skinner, is known for advocating
  2. submission to the legitimate authority of the Church
  3. an inductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles are derived from

numerous observations

  1. the idea that humans are mere machines
  2. a deductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles based on Aristotle’s

authority would be used to deduce specific laws about how the world worked


  1. Which of the following pairs is inappropriately matched?
  2. Galileo—heliocentric
  3. Bacon—inductive
  4. Copernicus—geocentric
  5. Harvey—circulatory system


  1. In addition to his faith in an inductive approach to science, Bacon also believed that
  2. science should play a role in controlling nature
  3. basic science was good, but applied science was bad
  4. scientists should conform to the wisdom of Aristotle
  5. a thorough understanding of the universe could only be known theologically








  1. Which of the following was not a part of the historical context of Descartes’ time?
  2. there was the beginning of a gradual erosion of the authority of the Church
  3. intellectuals were becoming disillusioned with the so-called progress resulting from

science and technology

  1. there was a spirit of “mechanism,” exemplified by Harvey’s mechanical theory of the

circulatory system

  1. there was growing faith in the value of observational methods as a way to understand

the world


  1. What did Galileo and Descartes have in common?
  2. they both questioned traditional authorities when arriving at a decision about the truth

of something

  1. they both relied exclusively on inductive methods
  2. both made their primary contributions to astronomy rather than psychology
  3. their nearly simultaneous discovery of the reflex counts as a multiple


  1. Descartes believed in which of the following statements?
  2. the mind and the body are separate, but they operate in parallel (i.e., they do not

directly influence each other)

  1. such ideas as “extension” are learned through the experiences of early childhood
  2. the way to truth is through the use of one’s innate reasoning powers
  3. the mind at birth is best described as a blank slate


  1. On the mind-body question, Descartes believed that
  2. mind and body were two aspects of the same essence
  3. mind and body were two distinct, noninteracting essences
  4. mind and body were two distinct essences that interacted directly with each other
  5. mind could be reduced to body (i.e., brain)—thus, he rejected dualism


  1. Descartes’ first rule of method, as outlined in Discourse on Method, was to
  2. recognize the important value of sensory information when seeking after truth
  3. analyze problems into sub problems
  4. collect as much inductive evidence as possible
  5. recognize as truth only that which could not be rationally doubted


  1. Descartes could be characterized as all of the following except
  2. dualist
  3. rationalist
  4. nativist
  5. materialist


  1. Descartes is accurately described as all of the following except
  2. a believer in mind-body interactionism
  3. a rationalist
  4. a believer in innate ideas
  5. interested in the mind but not in the body


  1. According to Descartes,
  2. the mind can influence the body, but the body cannot directly influence the mind
  3. the senses are faulty as mechanisms for acquiring knowledge
  4. the nervous system acts essentially as an electrical system and its nerves “vibrate”
  5. there are no innate ideas





  1. According to Descartes,
  2. mind and body interact at a place in the body that is not duplicated anywhere else,

namely, in the area of the heart

  1. animals are pure machines; humans have bodies that are machines, but they also have

rational minds

  1. the sensory and motor components of the reflex occur in two different sets of nerves
  2. the ideas of self and God are learned through the experiences of early childhood


  1. Descartes would consider knowledge of the concept of extension a(n) _____ idea, and the knowledge of how long a candle would burn a(n) ______ idea.
  2. innate; derived
  3. simple; complex
  4. unassociated; associated
  5. derived; innate


  1. Descartes believed that
  2. truth could be achieved only through the proper use of reason
  3. mind and body are just two parallel ways of looking at the same fundamental essence
  4. animals have minds; they just aren’t as advanced as ours
  5. because he needed to satisfy basic physiological urges, he therefore believed he existed

(I drink, therefore I am)


  1. The post-Renaissance model of the universe as a giant machine directly influenced
  2. Harvey’s idea of how the heart worked
  3. Descartes’ idea about how animals worked
  4. Newton’s idea about how the planets worked
  5. all of these


  1. According to the British Empiricist John Locke,
  2. all our ideas derive from sensation and reflection
  3. the mind is like veined marble at birth
  4. simple ideas are innate; complex ideas derive from our experiences
  5. a person blind from birth who had sight restored later in life would have no trouble

identifying and distinguishing (visually) a cube from a sphere


  1. John Locke was the first major British Empiricist. He is associated with all of the following ideas except
  2. the only important principles of association are spatial and temporal contiguity
  3. the only reality we can be sure of is our perception
  4. there are two sources of ideas: sensation and reflection
  5. the mind at birth is like a white paper


  1. How would Locke explain why children are afraid of the dark?
  2. they learn to be afraid, perhaps after being frightened by a maid
  3. it is a “natural” fear that derives from our poor night vision
  4. it is an innate idea that cannot be changed
  5. they fail to use their reason to arrive at the truth about the dark


  1. In his letters about educating the son of a friend, Locke recommended that
  2. a sound mind requires a sound body—therefore keep the child safe, dry, and warm

and avoid having him get his feet wet

  1. intelligence is innate, so only educate the child if he shows early signs of being bright
  2. reinforcement should take a concrete form (e.g., candy)—mere commendation is not


  1. physical punishment should be avoided, especially in young children


  1. With which of the following statements would John Locke agree?
  2. just because children have a concept of God early in life, that does not constitute

evidence that “God” is an innate idea

  1. the primary qualities of matter (e.g., color) do not belong to the objects themselves,

but depend on perception

  1. spare the rod and spoil the child
  2. ideas that are universal from one culture to another (e.g., God) can be considered

innate ideas, but that is the only situation that produces innate ideas


  1. John Locke would be least accurately described by which of the following terms?
  2. atomist
  3. empiricist
  4. associationist
  5. rationalist


  1. The concept of atomism is reflected in which of the following statements?
  2. association is to psychology as gravity is to physics
  3. complex ideas can be reduced to simple ideas
  4. primary qualities of matter have independent existence
  5. nothing is in the mind that was not first in the senses


  1. Berkeley extended Locke’s philosophy into a system that has been called subjective idealism or immaterialism. According to Berkeley’s system,
  2. there are no secondary qualities of matter; everything is a primary quality
  3. the greatest human value is to strive for a “subjectively ideal” world
  4. we cannot be sure that matter exists when we aren’t perceiving it, except through our faith

in the Permanent Perceiver

  1. our perception of the world results from the innate characteristics of the visual system;

learning isn’t involved very much


  1. Newton’s concept of gravity is analogous to the British Empiricist concept of
  2. sensation
  3. a simple idea
  4. a blank slate
  5. an association


  1. In An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, Bishop George Berkeley argued that
  2. the visual senses were unreliable as objective sources of knowledge; true knowledge

derives from reason

  1. our visual system is designed to perceive depth and distance automatically (i.e., it is

mostly innate)

  1. depth perception is purely and simply the result of our experiences with objects that

are at different distances from us

  1. everything we perceive has a primary quality to it (i.e., it truly exists)


  1. Berkeley’s philosophy has come to be called “subjective idealism” or immaterialism. He believed that
  2. all knowledge is innate but dormant; we have to use our reason to get at the knowledge
  3. the uncertainty of the physical world meant that God probably didn’t exist
  4. our belief in the existence of the external world depends on our perception of it
  5. we learn mostly through experience, but visual phenomena like depth perception are innate







  1. The idea that all things could be described in physical terms and could be understood in light of the physical properties of matter and energy is called
  2. rationalism
  3. associationism
  4. empiricism
  5. materialism


  1. According to Berkeley, our ability to perceive depth is partly the result of the manner in which the lens of the eye alters its shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. This lens-altering process is called
  2. accommodation
  3. a binocular depth cue
  4. convergence
  5. spatial contiguity


  1. Berkeley would agree with all of the following statements except
  2. we can have faith in the reality of objects through our faith in God, the Permanent


  1. we can never come to believe that objects in the world have physical reality
  2. we don’t see objects directly; we make judgments based on visual information and


  1. the binocular cue of convergence is one of the ways in which experience leads us to

experience distance


  1. David Hume proposed that ideas combine according to three laws of association. They were
  2. spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, resemblance
  3. resemblance, cause-and-effect relations, contiguity
  4. temporal contiguity, cause-and-effect relations, spatial contiguity
  5. contiguity, contiguity, and contiguity (i.e., he only believed in one basic law of



  1. Hume said that ideas were faint copies of impressions. Hartley said essentially the same thing when he distinguished between
  2. miniature vibrations and vibrations
  3. vibrations and sensation
  4. spatial and temporal contiguity
  5. primary and secondary qualities of matter


  1. Ed sees a picture of the Grand Canyon and immediately recalls his visit there. This is an example of which of Hume’s principles of association?
  2. spatial contiguity
  3. temporal contiguity
  4. resemblance
  5. cause and effect


  1. In Hartley’s parallelist system, sensation is to idea as ______ is to ______.
  2. perception; thought
  3. simple idea; complex idea
  4. vibration; miniature vibration
  5. temporal contiguity; spatial contiguity


  1. Jane flinches when she sees lightning, anticipating the loud noise. This has come about as a result of
  2. temporal contiguity
  3. cause-and-effect
  4. spatial contiguity
  5. resemblance
  6. On the dimension of atomism-holism, which of the British philosophers was most on the holism side?
  7. James Mill (Dad)
  8. John Stuart Mill (Son)
  9. David Hartley
  10. John Locke


  1. The James Mill quote about brick, mortar, walls, and houses illustrates which of the following concepts?
  2. materialism
  3. holism
  4. atomism
  5. innate ideas


  1. John Stuart Mill was a child prodigy. With which of the following statements about his early ability would he be least likely to agree?
  2.       some have it, some don’t (i.e., I was born smart)
  3. if you work hard enough, you can accomplish a lot
  4. I would not have accomplished anything if I had not been pushed by my father
  5. experience is everything


  1. How did John Stuart Mill’s (JSM) philosophy differ from that of James Mill (JM), his father?
  2. JSM replaced his father’s mechanical metaphor with a chemical one
  3. JSM reduced all association to contiguity; JM had a long list of laws of association
  4. JSM believed in innate genius (after all, wasn’t he one?), while JM believed in the

conventional empiricism that held that knowledge results from experience

  1. none of these—JSM elaborated on Dad’s ideas and wrote more coherently, but he                                                didn’t change any of his father’s ideas


  1. James Mill’s model of the mind (exemplified by the quote about complex and duplex ideas in houses) could be described as _____; his son’s model was more of _______.
  2. traditional empiricism; a rationalist system
  3. mental chemistry; a mental mechanics
  4. mental mechanics; a mental chemistry
  5. rationalism; an empiricist system


  1. The logic of the modern correlational method is essentially the same as Mill’s method of
  2. agreement
  3. difference
  4. concomitant variation
  5. cause and effect


  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of agreement, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these


  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of difference, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these


  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Combining Mill’s methods of agreement and difference, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these


  1. The gestalt psychologists argued that the whole was greater than the sum of its parts. The British philosopher closest in spirit to this idea was
  2. John Locke
  3. David Hume
  4. David Hartley
  5. John Stuart Mill


  1. The French philosopher Leibniz argued that
  2. animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth)
  3. the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing

our innate predispositions

  1. both animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth) and the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing our innate predispositions
  2. none of these


  1. The French philosopher Leibniz responded to Locke’s white paper metaphor by saying that the mind was more like veined marble. Leibniz was arguing that
  2. humans are true “empirics”
  3. the mind has innate properties that help shape experience
  4. all basic human properties are fixed (i.e., innate) at birth
  5. everyone has flaws


  1. All of the following concepts are associated with the French philosopher Leibniz except
  2. mind and body act in parallel with each other
  3. the mind is like veined marble
  4. animals are pure empirics
  5. we have a priori knowledge of space and time


  1. For Leibniz, the highest level of awareness was known as
  2. sensation
  3. apperception
  4. perception
  5. petite perception


  1. What did Leibniz mean by the concept of a petite perception?
  2. it was the same as a monad
  3. it was a perception below the level of awareness
  4. it was the perception of any small object
  5. it was the perception of any object that was available for perception for just a brief

period of time


  1. Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
  2. Hartley—contiguity
  3. Leibniz—monad
  4. Hume—veined marble
  5. Berkeley—depth perception





  1. Which of the following is appropriately paired?
  2. Descartes—mind-body interactionism
  3. Kant—levels of awareness from apperception through petite perception
  4. Locke—mind is veined marble
  5. Hume—all association is contiguity


  1. What do Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant all have in common?
  2. none were British philosophers
  3. all were primarily rationalist philosophers
  4. both alternatives a. none were British philosophers and all were primarily rationalist philosophers
  5. none of these




  1. B 29. C
  2. D 30. D
  3. A 31. A
  4. B 32. B
  5. C 33. B
  6. A 34. A
  7. B 35. C
  8. A 36. C
  9. C 37. A
  10. C 38. B
  11. D 39. C
  12. D 40. A
  13. D 41. A
  14. B 42. C
  15. B 43. C
  16. A 44. A
  17. A 45. B
  18. D 46. C
  19. A 47. D
  20. B 48. C
  21. A 49. B
  22. D 50. D
  23. A 51. B
  24. D 52. B
  25. B 53. C
  26. C 54. A
  27. D 55. C
  28. C



  1. Short Answer



  1. Distinguish between a heliocentric and a geocentric view of the universe.
  2. What does it mean to say that Descartes was a dualist and an interactionist?
  3. Descartes was taught in the scholastic tradition. What does this mean?
  4. According to Descartes, how do humans differ from animals?
  5. Distinguish between sensation and reflection as sources of ideas, according to Locke.
  6. Most of the British empiricists are said to be atomistic. What does this mean?
  7. What was the distinction made by Locke between primary and secondary qualities of matter?
  8. As it affects perception, distinguish between convergence and accommodation.
  9. What was Hume’s distinction between impressions and ideas?
  10. What was Hume’s position on causality?
  11. On the mind-body question, what is a parallelist position?
  12. Identify and give examples of the two main forms of contiguity, according to Hartley.
  13. Distinguish between Dad Mill’s mental mechanics and Son Mill’s mental chemistry.
  14. Use the example of a wave to illustrate Leibniz’s concept of apperception and petite perception.





III. Essay



  1. Describe the historical context that helped to shape Descartes’ ideas about mind and body.
  2. Descartes’ rules of method, outlined in his Discourse on Method, seem straightforward and obvious to us today, but were revolutionary in his day. Explain, and show how the first sentence of this question could be considered an example of presentism.
  3. Describe Descartes’ concept of the reflex and how he thought bodily movement was influenced by the mind. Show how these ideas were influenced by the contemporary zeitgeist.
  4. With his model of nervous system functioning, how did Descartes explain memory?
  5. Describe Locke’s rationale for rejecting the concept of innate ideas.
  6. Describe Locke’s views on the education of children and show how they were consistent with his empiricism and similar to 20th century behaviorism.
  7. Describe Berkeley’s subjective idealism and explain why he saw this philosophy as an assault on materialism.
  8. Show how Berkeley’s subjective idealism is consistent with his ideas about how vision (e.g., distance perception) works.
  9. Describe how experience would be expected to produce depth and distance perception, according to Berkeley.
  10. Hume proposed three main principles of association. Use examples to describe each.
  11. Modern psychology’s general concept of causality has been strongly influenced by Hume. Explain.
  12. Hartley believed there was one basic principle of association. Give an example to show that you know what he meant by it. Distinguish between temporal and spatial versions of this principle.
  13. Use a research example to relate Mill’s methods of agreement and difference to a modern experiment in psychology.
  14. Contrast Locke and Leibniz on the nature-nurture issue.
  15. Describe the Leibniz theory about levels of awareness.
  16. Briefly describe Kant’s epistemology.






     chapter 04

  1. Multiple Choice


NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

8, 11, 16, 19, 26, 38, 48, 53



  1. In the 19th century the German system of higher education developed a philosophy that came to be known as Wissenschaft. It featured
  2. an emphasis on scholarly and scientific research
  3. a strictly prescribed set of course requirements to earn the doctorate
  4. fairly severe restrictions on academic freedom
  5. more emphasis on undergraduate teaching than on research


  1. Johan Herbart was an important predecessor to experimental psychophysics. He believed that
  2. the mind should be studied using laboratory experiments, not pure mathematics
  3. ideas with different strengths could be assigned different mathematical weights
  4. ideas had measurable “strength,” and these strengths were constant (unchangeable)
  5. psychology, in order to be scientific, had to be closely tied to physiology


  1. If your total cognitive focus is on this multiple choice item, then Herbart would say the item is part of your
  2. apperceptive mass
  3. repressed awareness
  4. above-threshold awareness
  5. just noticeable difference


  1. According to Weber’s Law, if a person notices a difference between 30 and 33 grams, that person will also notice a difference between
  2. 60 and 63 grams
  3. 90 and 93 grams
  4. 10 and 13 grams
  5. all of these


  1. In a weight-judging study, Sally just barely notices a difference between two weights of 30 and 33 grams. Weber’s Law predicts that she will also notice the difference between
  2. 60 and 63 grams
  3. 90 and 93 grams
  4. both 60 and 63 grams and 90 and 93 grams
  5. none of these


  1. If someone cannot detect a difference in weight between 30 grams and 32 grams, but can tell the difference between 30 grams and 33 grams, the discrimination between 30 and 33 grams is called
  2. a two-point threshold
  3. a limits threshold
  4. a jnd
  5. a limit


  1. While studying visual afterimages, I inadvertently looked too long at the sun and seriously damaged my eyes, to the extent that I had to take a medical leave from work. Who am I?
  2. Johan Herbart
  3. Hermann Ebbinghaus
  4. Oswald Külpe
  5. Gustav Fechner



  1. Hearing tests, which present sequences of tones that steadily decrease in loudness, are using a method closest to which of the following developed by Fechner?
  2. adjustment
  3. limits
  4. constant stimuli
  5. fractionation


  1. The subject has the greatest degree of control over stimulus presentation in which of the following methods of psychophysics?
  2. method of limits
  3. method of constant stimuli
  4. method of apperception
  5. method of adjustment


  1. Boring referred to Fechner as the “inadvertent founder of psychophysics.” What did he mean by that?
  2. Fechner stumbled on psychophysics by accident (he happened to read Weber’s work)
  3. Fechner deliberately downplayed Weber’s work in order to gain all the credit himself
  4. Fechner was more interested in destroying materialism than in establishing a science
  5. when Fechner first started studying thresholds, he didn’t realize the later applications of his

work (e.g., vision testing)


  1. Wundt is considered the founder of experimental psychology because he
  2. was the first to be doing experimental research on psychological phenomena
  3. established the most popular laboratory in Europe
  4. explicitly set out to identify and establish a “new” science
  5. wrote the first book that dealt with research topics of interest to psychologists


  1. Why is Wundt considered the founder of experimental psychology, and not Fechner?
  2. Wundt did better research
  3. Wundt’s research preceded Fechner’s
  4. establishing an experimental psychology was Wundt’s explicit goal
  5. none of these—Fechner is generally recognized as the founder of experimental



  1. For six years, from 1858 to 1864, Wundt was the assistant in a major laboratory. Who was the director of this lab?
  2. Helmholtz
  3. Weber
  4. Fechner
  5. Herbart


  1. According to Wundt, laboratory psychology was to be the study of
  2. mediate conscious experience
  3. immediate conscious experience
  4. individual differences in conscious experience
  5. higher mental processes


  1. What did Wundt believe about laboratory work in psychology?
  2. it must be confined to the study of mediate conscious experience through the use of

self observation

  1. it must be confined to the study of mediate conscious experience through the use of

internal perception

  1. it must be confined to the study of immediate conscious experience through the use of

self observation

  1. it must be confined to the study of immediate conscious experience through the use of

internal perception


  1. How did Wundt propose to study immediate conscious experience?
  2. through the use of a form of introspection that he called internal perception
  3. through the use of a form of introspection that he called self observation
  4. through the use of inductive observational techniques and case study
  5. by avoiding introspection completely and relying on physiological measures


  1. How did Wundt propose to study such higher mental processes as thinking and language?
  2. in the lab, using purely objective physiological measures
  3. outside of the lab, using observational procedures and cross-cultural comparisons
  4. in the lab, using the form of introspection called internal perception
  5. none of these—he did not believe these processes could be studied in psychology


  1. In Wundt’s laboratory, the majority of research concerned the topic of
  2. attention
  3. association
  4. reaction time (mental chronometry)
  5. sensation/perception


  1. If discrimination reaction time takes .30 seconds and simple reaction time takes .21 seconds, then
  2. the mental event of discrimination takes .09 seconds
  3. the mental event of discrimination takes .51 seconds
  4. the sensory component has taken .21 seconds and the motor component has taken .09


  1. an imageless thought has occurred during the lost .09 seconds


  1. Choice RT takes .48 seconds, discrimination RT takes .37 seconds, and simple RT takes .25 seconds. How long did it take for the mental event of “choice” to occur?
  2. .12 seconds
  3. .48 seconds
  4. .11 seconds
  5. .23 seconds


  1. What was the essential flaw in the complication experiment?
  2. the assumption that mental events could simply be added together
  3. the apparatus lacked precision, so the times were unreliable
  4. the subjectivity of introspection
  5. some people are just faster than others—no general conclusions could be drawn


  1. In the reaction time research completed in Wundt’s lab by James McKeen Cattell,
  2. large numbers of subjects were needed to get stable mean RT scores
  3. Cattell served as both experimenter and subject
  4. data from the different subjects were reported as average reaction times
  5. the task was stressful enough to temporarily damage Cattell’s health


  1. Which of the following was true about Cattell’s experience in Wundt’s laboratory?
  2. a major source of frustration involved keeping the apparatus running properly and precisely
  3. he wrote to his parents that the research was mentally exhausting and he didn’t know how long

he could keep it up

  1. he was very impressed by the quality of the research done in Wundt’s laboratory
  2. he told his parents that the whole research area involved with reaction time was largely a

waste of time—nothing important would come of it





  1. Much of what we know about Wundt was once thought to be correct, but is now known to be wrong. Which of the following was indeed correct about Wundt?
  2. Titchener’s system is about the same as Wundt’s system
  3. Wundt was the founder of a “school” of psychology known as structuralism
  4. Wundt was not really interested in cultural psychology; it was just a fad with him
  5. Wundt believed that the study of higher mental processes was important, but could not be

studied in the laboratory


  1. Which of the following choices would have been scored as “true” on a history and systems exam 30 years ago, but would be scored as “false” today?
  2. Wundt established his laboratory at Leipzig in the late 1870s
  3. Wundt established the school of psychology called structuralism
  4. most of the research in Wundt’s laboratory dealt with sensation/perception
  5. Wundt used a highly controlled form of introspection in some of his experiments


  1. Wundt’s influence has been reevaluated recently, in part because of his psychology has shifted interests in the late 20th century. In particular, Wundt’s research was similar to the work completed by modern-day ______ psychologists.
  2. physiological
  3. social
  4. cognitive
  5. behavioral


  1. Wundt’s system is sometimes called voluntarism because Wundt
  2. used volunteers as subjects in his research
  3. placed special emphasis on the analysis of voluntary acts into their basic elements
  4. emphasized the mind’s ability to willfully and actively organize the contents of consciousness
  5. believed that only voluntary, higher mental processes could be studied experimentally


  1. According to Wundt, mental contents that are unclear, indistinct, or in the periphery are said to be
  2. apprehended
  3. apperceived
  4. mediate rather than immediate
  5. associated


  1. Wundt used the term ___________ to refer to a process that brought mental contents into the focus of attention.
  2. apprehension
  3. perception
  4. voluntarism
  5. apperception


  1. What was the term used by Wundt to identify the mental process that makes mental contents meaningful and brings them into the center of attention?
  2. sensation
  3. apperception
  4. apprehension
  5. selective attention


  1. One of Wundt’s best-known students was Emil Kraepelin, a person familiar to students taking abnormal psychology. Kraepelin found that
  2. alcohol reduces our ability to focus attention
  3. those who are insane have faster reaction times than those who are sane
  4. schizophrenics suffer from impaired attention and inadequate apperception processes
  5. those who are insane actually have a heightened ability to apperceive (that’s why creative

artists are sometimes nuts)

  1. In his laboratory research, Wundt and his students identified two basic elements of mental life. They were
  2. sensations and perceptions
  3. simple and complex ideas
  4. perceptions and apperceptions
  5. sensations and feelings


  1. Emil Kraepelin, one of Wundt’s best-known students, applied Wundt’s ideas about attention to
  2. the thinking processes of schizophrenics
  3. the imagination of children
  4. the interpretation of the complication experiment
  5. the study of animal behavior (comparative psychology)


  1. When studying higher mental processes, Wundt believed that
  2. laboratory control was absolutely essential
  3. cross-cultural studies would be needed
  4. introspection as internal perception would be the essential method
  5. none of these—he didn’t think higher mental processes could be studied systematically


  1. If Ebbinghaus was correct about the time course of forgetting, then
  2. by this time tomorrow you will have zero memory of the information for this test
  3. you will have difficulty recalling almost half of the material for this exam within an hour or two
  4. you will remember almost all of the material for this exam over the next week or so, but then

your memory will deteriorate rapidly

  1. because you found this material so unbelievably fascinating, you won’t forget any of it


  1. In creating nonsense syllables, what was Ebbinghaus trying to do?
  2. he wanted to study the initial formation of associations
  3. he wanted to study the nature of already-formed associations
  4. he wanted to create stimuli that would be meaningful to the memorizer
  5. he wanted to create a test that would evaluate fatigue levels in German school children

at different times of the day


  1. Pretend you’re Ebbinghaus. On Monday you take 20 minutes to learn a list of nonsense syllables. On Tuesday, you take 5 minutes to relearn the list. What is your saving score?
  2. 15 minutes
  3. 25%
  4. 25%
  5. 50%


  1. Why did Ebbinghaus use CVCs in his research?
  2. he was trying to examine the how associations were initially created
  3. he wanted simple materials that he could learn more quickly than prose
  4. he was only interested in short-term memory, not long-term memory
  5. there was no way he could measure recall if he used meaningful materials


  1. An important implication of the savings methods used by Ebbinghaus was that
  2. forgetting occurred more quickly than previously thought
  3. even if some information cannot be recalled, it does not mean the information has disappeared


  1. learning is more difficult if the materials to be studied are meaningless
  2. short-term memory has a very limited capacity





  1. Alice takes 20 minutes to learn a list of nonsense syllables. The next day she is asked to relearn the list and earns a savings score of 25%. How much time did she need to relearn the list?
  2. 5 minutes
  3. 10 minutes
  4. 15 minutes
  5. 25 minutes


  1. All of the following characterized the Ebbinghaus memory research except
  2. he tried to make the syllables meaningful as he memorized them, by using various mnemonic


  1. he was the only subject
  2. he took steps to ensure that the syllables were read at a constant rate
  3. he completed the research over two separate 1-year periods, with the second period serving

the purpose of replication


  1. In his memory research, Ebbinghaus found that
  2. for the first 24 hours, the rate of forgetting is very slow; then it speeds up
  3. if there were seven or fewer syllables in a list, they could be learned in just a single repetition
  4. surprisingly, varying the number of original repetitions when studying the lists had no significant

effect on recall

  1. studying a list by massing the practice all at one time produced better recall than spreading out

the studying of the list


  1. In his memory research, Ebbinghaus reported a number of important results. Which of the following was not one of them?
  2. distributing practice over several sessions was better than cramming it all in at once
  3. he noticed that memory performance was better in the morning than in the evening
  4. if there were seven or fewer syllables in a list, they could be learned in just a single repetition
  5. forgetting occurs at a very rapid rate at first, then slows down


  1. Ebbinghaus studied all of the following except
  2. the use of memory aids (mnemonics)
  3. the time course of forgetting
  4. massed versus distributed practice
  5. serial learning


  1. What is ecological memory?
  2. it’s a term that sums up what Ebbinghaus did
  3. it’s a term that sums up what G. E. Müller did
  4. it refers to any laboratory memory research using good experimental control
  5. it’s the study of memory for everyday events


  1. A good example of presentist thinking can be found in Chapter 4. It involves
  2. showing that Wundt’s work has not been properly understood in the past
  3. the case of Cattell criticizing Wundt’s laboratory
  4. Külpe’s rejection of the assumptions underlying the complication experiment
  5. the modern criticism of the Ebbinghaus tradition for failing to shed light on everyday memory


  1. How did the memory work of G. E. Müller differ from that of Ebbinghaus?
  2. Müller believed that the learner was more actively involved in the memory process than


  1. Ebbinghaus added introspection to his research; Müller refused to introspect
  2. Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables, but Müller’s research studied ecological memory
  3. Ebbinghaus had the benefit of technology (i.e., memory drum); Müller did not



  1. All of the following are associated with G. E. Müller except
  2. helped invent the memory drum
  3. with Pilzecker, studied retroactive inhibition
  4. made the initial discovery of imageless thought
  5. most of his work involved replicating and (significantly) extending the work of others


  1. Which of the following are properly paired?
  2. Wundt—systematic experimental introspection
  3. G. E. Müller—memory drum
  4. Ebbinghaus—imageless thoughts
  5. Külpe—serial learning


  1. A fair assessment of G. E. Müller would be to describe him as
  2. more of a physiologist than an experimental psychologist
  3. more interested in theory development than in research
  4. remarkably successful as a researcher despite his inability to develop research apparatus for

his lab

  1. happiest when doing laboratory research


  1. In Ach’s dissertation with Külpe, he gave subjects pairs of numbers after first telling them that they would be performing some operation on these numbers. He found that subjects responded with very fast (and equal) reaction times regardless of the type of operation, because the prior instructions had created
  2. some uncertainty in the minds of subjects
  3. a mental set to respond in a certain way
  4. the conscious attitudes of hesitation and doubt
  5. imageless thoughts


  1. One of Külpe’s students, Watt, developed the technique of “fractionating” the four stages of a word association procedure into four steps. Which of the following was not one of those steps?
  2. a preparatory period, when the subject prepares for stimulus presentation
  3. the response itself
  4. “striving” for the response, just prior to the response itself
  5. a phase in which imageless thoughts appeared


  1. In Külpe’s Würzburg lab, Marbe did a study in which subjects compared weights. His introspectors found that at the moment when the judgment was made, all of the following were experienced except
  2. hesitation
  3. images
  4. doubts
  5. searching


  1. Which of the following was true about systematic experimental introspection?
  2. it was more like Wundt’s internal perception than Wundt’s self-observation
  3. Külpe tried it in his lab, but quickly rejected it
  4. the procedure of fractionation was devised to solve the problem of the length of the

introspective accounts

  1. it was designed for the study of immediate consciousness and useless for studying higher

mental processes like word association





  1. A 28. A
  2. B 29. D
  3. A 30. B
  4. C 31. C
  5. D 32. D
  6. C 33. A
  7. D 34. B
  8. B 35. B
  9. D 36. A
  10. C 37. C
  11. C 38. A
  12. C 39. A
  13. A 40. C
  14. B 41. A
  15. D 42. B
  16. A 43. B
  17. B 44. A
  18. D 45. D
  19. A 46. D
  20. C 47. A
  21. A 48. C
  22. B 49. B
  23. A 50. D
  24. D 51. B
  25. B 52. D
  26. C 53. B
  27. C 54. C


  1. Short Answer



  1. In the 19th century the German system of higher education developed a philosophy that came to be known as Wissenschaft. What was the essence of this philosophy?
  2. What did Herbart mean by the concept of apperceptive mass?
  3. With the two-point threshold as a task, how would you demonstrate the method of limits?
  4. Use the chapter’s temperature example to distinguish between immediate and mediate conscious experience.
  5. What was the difference between internal perception and self observation, according to Wundt?
  6. Make up some numbers to show that you understand how Donders’ subtraction method was used in the reaction time research in Wundt’s lab.
  7. What was the difference between apperception and apprehension, according to Wundt?
  8. What did Wundt mean by a creative synthesis?
  9. Make up some numbers to show that you understand how Ebbinghaus used the method of savings in his memory research.
  10. How did G. E. Müller’s approach to the study of memory differ from that of Ebbinghaus?
  11. In a nonsense syllable study, describe how you would study retroactive inhibition.
  12. In Külpe’s lab, what was meant by a conscious attitude?



III. Essay



  1. In the context of a two-point threshold experiment, describe the three methods of psychophysics outlined by Fechner.
  2. Describe Weber’s Law and illustrate it with Weber’s weight lifting experiment.
  3. Fechner might have become the “founder” of experimental psychology, but that label goes to Wundt instead. Explain.
  4. Describe Fechner’s purpose in developing psychophysics, and in so doing, explain why he is not considered the “founder” of modern experimental psychology.
  5. Wundt distinguished between the study of immediate conscious experience and the study of higher mental processes. Describe how he proposed to study each.
  6. Describe the logic of the complication experiment and create some data to illustrate how it worked to demonstrate times for (a) discrimination, and (b) choice.
  7. Describe the traditional view of Wundt’s psychology and compare it to what we now know. How did the misinterpretation come about?
  8. Consider the Ebbinghaus memory research. What was he trying to accomplish, why did he use CVCs, and what was the advantage of using his savings method to measure performance?
  9. Describe the research in Külpe’s lab that demonstrated the existence of mental sets, while at the same time questioning the validity of the complication experiments.



There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *