Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition by David H. Barlow – Test Bank


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Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition by David H. Barlow – Test Bank

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chapter 02

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1. It is important to understand the process of how learned helplessness is created in laboratory animals because learned helplessness in animals resembles a psychological disorder in humans. What is this disorder?

  a. mania
  b. depression
  c. schizophrenia
  d. generalized anxiety disorder


2. Which of the following is likely if Terry has a more optimistic personality than his brother Barry?

  a. Terry will likely live seven-and-a-half years longer than Barry.
  b. Terry is less likely to have a heart attack than Barry.
  c. Terry is likely to have had fewer stressful events in his life so far than Barry.
  d. Terry is likely to have experienced significantly more stressful events in his life than Barry.


3. Which neurotransmitter is thought to regulate or moderate certain behavioural tendencies rather than directly influencing specific patterns of behaviour or psychological disorders?

  a. norepinephrine
  b. GABA
  c. serotonin
  d. dopamine


4. Alex has a form of epilepsy that affects his limbic system. What sort of behaviour is Alex most likely to display while having a seizure?

  a. lack of body posture and uncoordinated movement
  b. unusual emotional expressions and aggression
  c. disturbed sleep
  d. difficulty breathing


5. Karl has been given a medication that reduces dopamine; however, doctors suspect that Karl has taken too much of the medication because of the side effects he is showing. Which of the following described side effects could Karl be showing?

  a. muscle rigidity, tremors, and impaired judgment
  b. extreme aggression
  c. compulsive pleasure-seeking behaviours
  d. delusions and hallucinations


6. If you had to choose one brain area to protect so that you could stay alive, which would it be?

  a. the frontal lobes
  b. the brain stem
  c. the forebrain
  d. the midbrain


7. What does the diathesis–stress model predict about monozygotic twins raised in the same household?

  a. They will have no more likelihood of sharing a disorder than any other two randomly selected individuals from the population.
  b. They will not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their stress.
  c. They will have the same disorders because their diathesis and stress are similarly experienced.
  d. They will not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their diathesis.


8. Because psychological disorders are still associated with social stigma (people tend to think that the disorder is something to be ashamed of), which of the following becomes more likely to happen?

  a. People with psychological disorders will not seek and receive the treatment and support of others that are most needed for recovery.
  b. People with psychological disorders will be ignored by mental health professionals when they seek help.
  c. People with psychological disorders will be far more easily treated than those with physical disorders.
  d. People with psychological disorders will seek help for their disorders but be more likely to receive insufficient treatment than those with physical illness.


9. Wayne knows he takes a medication that causes an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter activity in the brain. What process is being affected by the medication?

  a. neural stimulation
  b. reuptake
  c. systematic manipulation
  d. neural inhibition


10. Which of the following theorists is responsible for the research that conceptualized the term “modelling”?

  a. Donald Meichenbaum
  b. Albert Bandura
  c. Aaron Beck
  d. Martin Seligman


11. Donald Meichenbaum developed self-instructional training for the treatment of depression. What is the goal of this treatment?

  a. to help the client develop more meaningful interpersonal relationships on his or her own
  b. to help the client identify unconscious conflicts from childhood
  c. to help the client identify faulty attributions regarding negative life events
  d. to help the client modify what the client says to him- or herself about the consequences of his or her behaviour


12. What part of the brain stem regulates vital activities such as heartbeat, breathing, and digestion?

  a. the forebrain
  b. the thalamus
  c. the reticular activating system
  d. the hindbrain


13. Sarah is experiencing a lot of anxiety. If doctors looked at her neurotransmitter levels, what would they most likely find?

  a. reduced levels of norepinephrine
  b. excessive levels of dopamine
  c. reduced levels of GABA
  d. excessive levels of serotonin


14. What term did Seligman coin to refer to people’s tendency to display a positive, upbeat attitude even when they are faced with considerable stress and difficulty in their lives?

  a. positive attribution
  b. resilience
  c. optimistic coping style
  d. learned optimism


15. Hannah is home alone late at night when she hears a loud, frightening noise. Her heart begins pounding, her muscles tense up, and her senses sharpen. Which of the following systems is causing Hannah’s reaction?

  a. the sympathetic nervous system
  b. the limbic system
  c. the parasympathetic nervous system
  d. the central nervous system


16. In their research exposing subjects to the virus that causes the common cold, what did Cohen and colleagues (1997) demonstrate?

  a. The quality of social contact predicted whether the individual would contract a cold, but the frequency of social contact did not.
  b. The frequency of social contact and chances of contracting a cold were unrelated.
  c. The less frequent the individual’s social contact, the lower the chances of contracting a cold.
  d. The more frequent the individual’s social contact, the lower the chances of contracting a cold.


17. Which of the following is an example of the unconscious as it is conceptualized by cognitive science?

  a. classical conditioning
  b. implicit memory
  c. ego development
  d. vicarious learning


18. In interpersonal psychotherapy, the patient and therapist work together on identifying life stresses that may have contributed to the psychological disorder. What else have these life stresses most likely contributed to?

  a. current interpersonal problems that are either the source of the stress or closely connected to it
  b. the ways in which such stressors interfere with current relationships
  c. the patient’s history of dysfunctional personal relationships
  d. the frequency and quality of current social contacts


19. Professor Knots is talking to her class about the tendency for people to fear spiders but not flowers.  Which of the following could be an excerpt from her lecture?

  a. “Over the course of evolution, this knowledge has contributed to the survival of the species.”
  b. “We have watched many others exhibit these fears and so have vicariously learned them.”
  c. “We are exposed to them more frequently.”
  d. “We are reinforced in our environment for some fears more than others.”


20. Janice is having difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her muscle movements. Assuming her problems result from a brain injury, which of the following would you first examine?

  a. the cerebellum
  b. the medulla
  c. the thalamus
  d. the midbrain


21. In the 1992 studies conducted by Baxter and colleagues, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were provided with cognitive-behavioural therapy but no drugs. What important result did the brain imaging show?

  a. Neither OCD symptoms nor neurotransmitter function had improved.
  b. Neurotransmitter circuits are the direct and only cause of OCD.
  c. The patients’ OCD symptoms improved without changes in neurotransmitter function.
  d. The neurotransmitter circuits of the brain had been normalized.


22. When people with and without support groups are studied, what have researchers found?

  a. Support groups are the most important factor predicting social and physical health.
  b. Having a supportive group of people around us is important to our psychological well- being but not our physical health.
  c. Social support is important but mostly for those individuals who are at high risk for various physical or psychological disorders.
  d. Having a supportive group of people around us is important to our physical health but not our psychological well-being.


23. If Max and Matt are identical twins and you know that Max has a psychological disorder, what can you say about Matt?

  a. Matt will definitely have the disorder as well.
  b. Matt has the same probability of having the disorder as the normal population.
  c. Matt has a greater likelihood of having the disorder than the normal population, but less than he would if he were a dizygotic twin.
  d. Matt is as likely to have the disorder as he would be if he was a non-twin sibling of Max.


24. Which of the following parts of the brain is most associated with memory, thought, and reasoning?

  a. the left parietal lobe
  b. the brain stem
  c. the occipital lobe
  d. the frontal lobe


25. Which of the following did Albert Bandura teach us about modelling, or observational learning?

  a. Learning acquired through observation is much more resistant to extinction than behaviour acquired through classical or operant conditioning.
  b. Much of our learned behaviour depends upon our interactions with those around us.
  c. Our learned behaviour has much more to do with the types of consequences (reinforcements and punishments) of our actions than our interactions with those around us.
  d. It is impossible to learn behavioural patterns without observing those around us.


26. Jeffrey is writing a paper on philosophical theories of morality. Which part of Jeffrey’s brain would a PET scan show to be most active at this time?

  a. the hindbrain
  b. the cerebral cortex
  c. the midbrain
  d. the limbic system


27. What do the evil eye, the Latin American disorder susto, and the Haitian phenomenon of voodoo death all exemplify?

  a. unsubstantiated myths that people can become ill without physical cause
  b. the influence of the social environment on our physical and psychological health
  c. isolated cultural phenomena with little practical significance
  d. the power of the supernatural model of psychopathology


28. What is the term for the system comprised of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?

  a. the peripheral nervous system
  b. the central nervous system
  c. the sympathetic nervous system
  d. the parasympathetic nervous system


29. Why are neurotransmitters important?

  a. because they allow neurons to send signals to other neurons
  b. because they are converted into electrical impulses
  c. because they nurture the neuronal structures of the brain
  d. because they allow the brain to maintain its structural integrity


30. Why are women more likely than men to suffer from insect phobias?

  a. because of cultural expectations
  b. because of their traditional role in the home, where they are more likely to encounter insects
  c. because of differences in neurochemical pathways
  d. because of hormonal differences


31. What is the average duration of interpersonal psychotherapy?

  a. 5–10 sessions
  b. 10–15 sessions
  c. 15–20 sessions
  d. 20–25 sessions


32. What is the major function of the peripheral nervous system?

  a. to control hormonal activity
  b. to regulate arousal
  c. to coordinate with the brain stem to ensure the body is working properly
  d. to process information received from the central nervous system


33. What does recent evidence regarding the genetic influence on most psychological disorders indicate?

  a. Multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect.
  b. Single genes are usually responsible for psychological disorders.
  c. Genes that influence psychopathology are usually recessive.
  d. Little evidence suggests that genes actually influence psychopathology.


34. John has inherited a personality trait that makes him more likely to keep to himself than to socialize. As a result, he does not have many friends and spends a lot of time alone. If John were to develop depression, which model would best explain this situation and the cause of his depression?

  a. the interpersonal model
  b. the reciprocal gene–environment model
  c. the biological model
  d. the diathesis–stress model


35. “Blind sight” is a good example of cognitive science’s conception of the unconscious. If an individual is affected by blind sight, what is that person doing?

  a. retrieving explicit memories of episodic experiences
  b. demonstrating that he or she has primitive emotional conflicts
  c. processing and storing information and acting on it without awareness
  d. utilizing implicit memories of visual stimuli


36. Dr. Jenkins argues that it is possible to inherit certain genes that could develop into a disorder, even though the disorder may never be activated unless conditions of trauma, challenge, or anxiety are experienced.  Which model supports Dr. Jenkins’s hypothesis?

  a. the diathesis–stress model
  b. the psycho–social model
  c. the genetic model
  d. the reciprocal gene–environment model


37. A series of studies examining Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning in children indicated that the steps involved include the child noticing, remembering, and being motivated to exhibit the model’s behaviour. The basic idea in this work is that a careful analysis of which of the following is important for producing accurate predictions of behaviour?

  a. cognitive processes
  b. social interactions
  c. early play behaviour
  d. rewards and punishments


38. Christina sits down to relax in her soft chair after a long, tiring day. As she sits reading her paper, she grows more relaxed. Her breathing and heart rate slow down and her muscles loosen. Which of the following systems is causing Christina’s relaxation?

  a. the limbic system
  b. the central nervous system
  c. the parasympathetic nervous system
  d. the sympathetic nervous system


39. From their review of studies examining Stroop effects in eating-disordered samples, what did Dobson and Dozois (2004) find in the colour-naming for body/weight words in those with anorexia?

  a. Those with anorexia were more accurate.
  b. Those with anorexia were less accurate.
  c. Those with anorexia were slower.
  d. Those with anorexia were faster.


40. Suppose you are a researcher who has bred rats to be emotional and reactive and then you cross-foster those rats so they are raised by calm mothers. What result would you expect?

  a. The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive as youths but calm when raising their own young.
  b. The young animals will tend to be calm throughout their lives.
  c. The young animals will tend to be mostly calm but emotional and reactive when faced with stressful situations.
  d. The young animals will tend to be emotional and reactive.


41. In which of the following cases is low serotonin activity NOT likely to lead to destructive or impulsive behaviours?

  a. if the parasympathetic system is activated
  b. if adrenalin levels remain high
  c. if the individual exercises sufficient self-control
  d. if other biological, social, or psychological influences compensate for the low serotonin activity


42. Dr. Tracy conducts an experiment where participants are given a mild shock followed by either a placebo or an opioid. When Dr. Tracy asks participants about pain relief and studies pain-related areas of their brains, what will Dr. Tracy find?

  a. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but only the opioid affected the region responsible for the control of the pain response in the brain.
  b. The placebo reduced pain but didn’t relieve pain as well as the opioid drug.
  c. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, and they affected similar regions in the brain stem.
  d. Both the placebo and the opioid drug relieved pain, but they affected completely different regions in the brain.


43. According to a lifespan psychologist, to understand a patient’s disorder, what must one also understand?

  a. how the individual has resolved interpersonal conflict throughout life
  b. how experiences during different periods of development may influence the individual’s vulnerability to some psychological disorders
  c. how the individual mastered key developmental tasks throughout various life stages
  d. how the individual developed during psychosexual stages


44. Which of the following occupations is an analogy for the main function of neurotransmitters?

  a. doorman at a hotel
  b. a messenger in a busy city
  c. a conductor of a train
  d. an actor in a play


45. You read in the newspaper that a mother lifted a car to free her trapped child. Which of the mother’s systems was highly activated to perform this feat?

  a. the central nervous system
  b. the sympathetic nervous system
  c. the limbic system
  d. the parasympathetic nervous system


46. Which of the following is a biological influence on blood-injury-injection phobia?

  a. an overreaction of a physiological mechanism that overcompensates for sudden increases in blood pressure
  b. a genetic tendency to fear situations involving blood
  c. hormonal abnormalities during the developmental period
  d. overactivity of the fear mechanisms in the brain as they pertain to situations involving blood and injury


47. Sandra had part of her brain removed to control epilepsy and as a result she can no longer solve problems that require visual imagery. What area of the brain did Sandra have removed?

  a. part of the left hemisphere of the cortex
  b. part the right hemisphere of the cortex
  c. part of the pons
  d. part of the midbrain


48. Michael and Marie lost their parents in a tragic accident. Marie has developed depression while Michael has not. Dr. Guthrie thinks that the difference is due to the siblings’ genders. Which of the following is Dr. Guthrie likely to cite to support her claim?

  a. Men have fewer social relationships than women, which may protect them from additional stress.
  b. When experiencing a negative event, women tend to ruminate about it and to blame themselves.
  c. Men are more likely to self-medicate their depressive feelings with alcohol.
  d. Men are more likely to simply endure feelings of depression, which makes the feelings pass more quickly.


49. What did Aaron Beck, the originator of cognitive-behavioural therapy, assume that depression is largely influenced by?

  a. an interaction between maladaptive neurotransmitter pathways and behaviours
  b. thinking too much about one’s failures in life
  c. unconscious thoughts that lead to maladaptive life situations
  d. faulty attributions and attitudes


50. Which of the following can be created by placing a rat in a cage where occasionally electrical shocks are administered through the floor, over which the rat has no control?

  a. unconscious learning
  b. operant conditioning
  c. stimulus generalization
  d. learned helplessness


51. Martha suffered a serious head injury and has since experienced difficulty recognizing specific sights and sounds. Which lobe of her brain has most likely been damaged?

  a. the temporal lobe
  b. the parietal lobe
  c. the frontal lobe
  d. the occipital lobe


52. If you put all the neurons from a brain in a hat and randomly selected one, which area would the neuron most likely have come from?

  a. the basal ganglia
  b. the midbrain
  c. the cerebral cortex
  d. the brain stem


53. You and a friend are lost while walking a street in a foreign city. A stranger approaches and you are concerned that the stranger may try to mug you. Your friend assumes that the stranger is approaching to give you directions. As the stranger approaches, you experience fear but your friend experiences relief. How can your different emotional reactions be explained?

  a. by the cognitive theory of emotion
  b. by the affective theory of emotion
  c. by the attributional theory of emotion
  d. by the implicit theory of emotion


54. Maya has experienced brain damage that has left her with difficulty sleeping and the problem of being hyperaroused. Which area of the brain was most likely damaged?

  a. the pons
  b. the medulla
  c. the hypothalamus
  d. the reticular activating system


55. Kolb and colleagues (2003) exposed juvenile, adult, or very old animals to challenging and complex environments. What did they find about this kind of environment?

  a. It had different effects on the animals’ brains depending on their developmental stage.
  b. It had a negative effect on the older animals’ brains but had no effect on the younger animals.
  c. It had a negative effect on the young animals’ cognitive functioning when they became adults.
  d. It had positive effects on the cognitive functioning of all the animals, regardless of age.


56. In the diathesis–stress model, what does “diathesis” refer to?

  a. conditions in the environment that can trigger a disorder depending upon how severe the stressors are
  b. an inherited, subclinical disease state that has the potential for developing into a full-blown psychological disorder, given certain environmental conditions
  c. an inherited tendency or condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder
  d. the interaction of social and psychological influences


57. Which of the following has dopamine been implicated in?

  a. attention deficit hyperactive disorder and depression
  b. schizophrenia and disorders of addiction
  c. depression and disorders of addiction
  d. schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactive disorder


58. Where in the brain are verbal and cognitive processes usually controlled?

  a. across the entire cortex
  b. in the midbrain
  c. in the left hemisphere of the cortex
  d. in the right hemisphere of the cortex


59. According to your textbook, the elevated rates of some psychological disorders in First Nations people are probably due to the contributions of poverty and another factor. What is this second factor?

  a. differences in diagnostic criteria used in assessments of First Nations people
  b. genetic differences between First Nations people and non-First Nations people
  c. a history of oppression by a majority culture
  d. cultural differences in the expression of mental illnesses


60. Which of the following can be concluded from the studies regarding rat learning and brain structure done by Greenough, Withers, and Wallace (1990)?

  a. Early psychological experience has little to do with brain structure or later development of psychopathology.
  b. Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and will determine whether the individual will develop a psychological disorder later in life.
  c. Early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and influences the number of connections between nerve cells.
  d. Early psychological experience does not result in physical changes to the nervous system but can still influence whether or not one develops a psychological disorder.


61. Dana has experienced an injury and can no longer perceive some sensory information. Which of Dana’s nervous systems is damaged?

  a. her peripheral nervous system
  b. her central nervous system
  c. her sympathetic nervous system
  d. her parasympathetic nervous system


62. Sean’s doctor thinks that Sean has low serotonin levels. What sorts of behaviour would lead the doctor to suspect serotonin is low?

  a. Sean is showing aggression, suicidal ideation, and impulsive behaviour.
  b. Sean is showing symptoms of schizophrenia.
  c. Sean is exhibiting anxiety and nervousness.
  d. Sean is exhibiting mania.


63. John’s parents both suffer from depression and, as a result, he is being exposed to a great deal of negative emotion during his developmental years. What can we conclude about John?

  a. He may or may not develop depression, but we could determine this if we knew more about factors such as his social support.
  b. He will develop depression due to the genetic predisposition and the home environment.
  c. He is no more likely to develop depression than any other child as long as he has friends and does not have difficulties as a child.
  d. He is at higher risk for depression but may never develop the disorder.


64. In their study comparing a placebo to opioid drugs, what did Petrovic and colleagues (2002) conclude?

  a. Psychological factors can affect brain function.
  b. Drugs should not be prescribed for most painful conditions.
  c. Pain is more of a psychological phenomenon than it is physical.
  d. Opioid drugs may relieve pain only through the expectation of pain relief.


65. When the Stroop paradigm was used in a study of women who were chronic dieters or “restrained eaters,” what did Francis and colleagues (1997) find about the restrained eaters, as compared to women who were normal eaters?

  a. The restrained eaters showed substantially slowed colour-naming for food-related words.
  b. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly more food-related words.
  c. The restrained eaters showed substantially faster colour-naming for food-related words.
  d. The restrained eaters were able to name significantly fewer food-related words.


66. Which of the following describes the research results of Greenough, Withers, and Wallace (1990)?

  a. Genetically caused brain structure problems can be corrected by positive life experiences.
  b. While psychopathology is often a result of early life experiences, it is generally due to the physical changes in the brain caused by such experiences.
  c. Psychopathology is the result of early learning experiences.
  d. Early experiences such as learning cause physical changes in the brain.


67. In addition to reducing anxiety, what broader role does GABA play?

  a. It reduces overall arousal and tempers emotional responses.
  b. It eases depression.
  c. It lessens psychotic behaviours associated with schizophrenia.
  d. It moderates emergency reactions and alarm responses.


68. Depression and schizophrenia seem to appear in all cultures but tend to be characterized by different symptoms within individual cultures. For example, Chinese depressed patients tend to report fewer affective and cognitive symptoms of depression. What is the most likely cause of this disparity?

  a. the perception in Chinese society that the affective expression of depression is self-centred and threatening to the social structure
  b. differences in diagnostic measures used in different cultures
  c. a history of oppression, which deters reporting
  d. genetic differences between individuals living in different cultures


69. Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning includes noticing, remembering, and exhibiting the model’s behaviour. What additional step in the process does Bandura’s research also suggest?

  a. motivation from seeing the model rewarded
  b. reinforcement from seeing the model rewarded
  c. the belief that the model’s behaviour was appropriate for the situation
  d. identification with the model


70. Which of the following is most likely to be hindered by damage to the somatic nervous system?

  a. voluntary movement
  b. thinking and reasoning
  c. the fight-or-flight response
  d. breathing and sleeping


71. Insel and colleagues (1988) conducted a study in which rhesus monkeys were raised either with a sense of control or without a sense of control, and they were later exposed to an anxiety-inducing drug. What did the researchers conclude?

  a. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters influence behaviour in different ways depending upon the psychological history of the individual.
  b. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters may have little or no effect on behaviours related to anxiety.
  c. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters have only indirect effects on behaviour.
  d. Chemicals such as neurotransmitters have few reliable and consistent effects on observed behaviour.


72. In the diathesis–stress model, what does “stress” refer to?

  a. life events that, in combination with an inherited tendency, trigger a disorder
  b. inherited tendencies that, in combination with life events, trigger a disorder
  c. the fact that without a diathesis, a disorder will not develop
  d. exposure to very unusual and extreme environmental conditions, which trigger a disorder


73. Which of the following is the best analogy for the influence of genes on our cognitive development?

  a. They are like an ignition switch on a rocket that can go forever.
  b. They are like a fence that holds us within a boundary.
  c. They are like a door that leads us to our destiny.
  d. They are like a hurdle that we must jump over.


74. How does recent research evidence describe the relationship between the brain (structure, function, neurotransmitters) and psychosocial factors (socialization, rearing, life events)?

  a. It is a system in which the brain directly influences behaviour and psychosocial factors but not the other way around.
  b. It is system of interchanges that are far too complex to fully capture with present-day neurological technologies.
  c. It is an interaction in which the brain affects psychosocial factors and psychosocial factors affect the brain.
  d. It is a system in which behaviour and psychosocial factors affect the brain but not the other way around.


75. What do we call the area between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron?

  a. the neural cleft
  b. the dendritic opening
  c. the axon terminal
  d. the synaptic cleft


76. What is one reason why men are less likely than women to experience depression in response to stress?

  a. Men are more likely to engage in activity to take their minds off the negative event.
  b. Men are more likely to drink alcohol to relieve stress.
  c. Men are more likely to think about the negative event afterward and solve the problem.
  d. Men are less likely to experience stressful events in the first place.


77. What does the term “equifinality” refer to?

  a. the fact that many causes of psychopathology are equal in influence
  b. the fact that all forms of psychopathology have similar causes
  c. the fact that a number of paths can lead to the same outcome
  d. the fact that the same path can lead to different outcomes


78. What does the peripheral nervous system include?

  a. the somatic and autonomic nervous system
  b. the brain stem and cortex
  c. the brain and spinal cord
  d. the endocrine system


79. How can neurotransmitters negatively affect psychological functioning?

  a. when they are chemically transformed and not recognizable by the brain
  b. when the wrong neurotransmitters come in contact with a neuron
  c. when production of neurotransmitters is either excessive or insufficient
  d. when an individual produces antibodies that make neurotransmitters ineffective


80. What does research imply about the nature of the unconscious?

  a. It clearly exists but in a very different way than Freud imagined.
  b. It clearly exists in much the same way that Freud imagined.
  c. It clearly exists in much the same way that Jung envisioned it.
  d. It may or may not exist as it is impossible to study material of which we are not aware.


81. Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with the regulation of mood, behaviour, and thought processes?

  a. GABA
  b. norepinephrine
  c. dopamine
  d. serotonin


82. Your very shy and withdrawn uncle spent most of his teen years in a hospital undergoing treatment for a severe physical injury. He has been diagnosed with social phobia that you believe is entirely due to his lack of socialization during his teen years. Which of the following best describes your theory?

  a. one-dimensional
  b. integrative
  c. multidimensional
  d. empirical


83. What has brain imaging research revealed about cognitive-behavioural therapy?

  a. Psychosocial factors such as therapy can affect neurotransmitter activity.
  b. Drugs are the most essential means to alter faulty neurotransmitter circuits.
  c. Neurotransmitters affect how people feel and act.
  d. Neurotransmitters are a result of how people feel and act, not a cause.


84. Research by Grant and colleagues (1988) found that older adults who have fewer social contacts were more likely to suffer from depression than those who have more frequent social contacts. If the individuals with fewer social contacts became physically ill, what tended to happen?

  a. They were less likely to ask their families for support.
  b. They were even less likely to receive support from their families.
  c. They were more likely to receive substantial social support from their families than those who are not ill.
  d. They were more likely to recover from the depression.


85. Dr. Friedmont raised two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group had the ability to control their environment, while the other group had no control. What will likely happen when the monkeys are injected with a drug that produces a feeling of severe anxiety?

  a. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will be calm, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appearvery anxious.
  b. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will appear angry and aggressive, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appear very anxious.
  c. The monkeys raised with a sense of control will appear anxious, while the monkeys raised without a sense of control will appear angry and aggressive.
  d. The monkeys in both groups will appear angry and aggressive.


86. A patient treated for an anxiety disorder has been directed to monitor her thoughts and stop thinking so much about how many things can go wrong. At the same time, she is practising relaxation exercises and trying to spend more time in situations that she fears. What type of treatment is she receiving?

  a. cognitive-behavioural therapy
  b. behavioural reconditioning
  c. classical conditioning
  d. psychoanalytic therapy


87. Why are behaviour and personality described as polygenic?

  a. Both are rarely influenced by individual genes.
  b. Both are influenced by many genes, with each individual gene contributing a relatively small effect.
  c. Both are influenced by a few select genes, each exerting a large effect.
  d. Both are a result of our genetic structure.


88. Dr. Tran is explaining that sleep problems can be a symptom of many different psychological disorders. What phenomenon is she describing?

  a. pathogenesis
  b. equifinality
  c. orthogonal causation
  d. psychopathology


89. Which of the following decreases neurotransmitter activity?

  a. blockers
  b. agonists
  c. antagonists
  d. reuptake inhibitors


90. Dr. Henry wants to increase the amount of serotonin circulating in Brian’s brain. What specific type of drug will Dr. Henry choose to prescribe?

  a. an antagonist
  b. an decelerator
  c. an agonist
  d. a placebo


91. What is emotion generally thought to comprise?

  a. behaviour, physiology, and mood
  b. behaviour, physiology, and cognition
  c. mood and affect
  d. cognition, behaviour, and affect


92. What has research found about people who have many social contacts and live their lives continually interacting with others?

  a. They tend to ruminate about negative life events less often.
  b. They tend to suffer lower overall rates of alcoholism.
  c. They tend to live longer and healthier lives.
  d. They tend to be at a higher risk for some psychological disorders such as dependency.


93. Why is it unlikely that damage in specific structures of the brain itself causes a psychological disorder?

  a. because psychological disorders typically involve emotional, behavioural, and cognitive symptoms
  b. because genetic factors exert an overriding influence on the development of most psychological disorders
  c. because other parts of the brain will compensate for the damage
  d. because environmental factors are the major factor in the development of most psychological disorders


94. Which nervous system processes all information received from our sense organs and reacts as necessary?

  a. the peripheral nervous system
  b. the central nervous system
  c. the sympathetic nervous system
  d. the parasympathetic nervous system


95. Terri believes that no matter how hard she studies, she will never succeed in college. What does this example illustrate?

  a. learned helplessness
  b. unconscious learning
  c. negative reinforcement
  d. vicarious learning


96. How is the relationship between emotion and health demonstrated?

  a. by the fact that sustained hostility with angry outbursts increases the risk of heart disease
  b. by the fact that panic is related to poor concentration
  c. by the fact that those in poor physical health almost always develop psychological disorders
  d. by the fact that people with chronic diseases are often angry about their care


97. When therapists ask patients how they are feeling and how they are experiencing their disorder today, patients are essentially taking snapshots of their lives at the moment. Who considers this approach incomplete in our understanding of psychopathology?

  a. lifespan psychologists
  b. humanists
  c. cognitive-behaviourists
  d. existentialists


98. Which model is characterized by the idea that our inherited tendencies influence the probability that we will encounter anxious life events?

  a. the psycho–social model
  b. the genetic model
  c. the diathesis–stress model
  d. the reciprocal gene–environment model


99. Greenough, Withers, and Wallace (1990) compared the brains of rats raised in a rich environment requiring lots of learning and motor behaviour with the brains of rats raised as “couch potatoes.”  What did the researchers find regarding the cerebellums of the more active rats?

  a. They contained more neuronal connections and dendrites.
  b. They contained more serotonin receptors.
  c. They contained a greater number of axons and norepinephrine circuits.
  d. They were less likely to possess pathological neurotransmitter circuits.


100. Dr. Amin wants to decrease the amount of dopamine circulating in Rashid’s brain. Which specific type of drug will Dr. Amin prescribe?

  a. a blocker
  b. an agonist
  c. an antagonist
  d. a reuptake inhibitor




101. Socialization is considered one of the most important parts of human experience. Describe gender differences in animal phobias, depression, and panic disorder. Give examples of how differential gender socialization may contribute to these differences.


102. Explain the difference between the modern cognitive science view of the unconscious and the Freudian idea of the unconscious.


103. Identify and describe the two major components of the peripheral nervous system and discuss their roles in various psychological disorders. Explain how the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions often operate in a complementary fashion during periods of stress.


104. Psychoactive medications (drugs that impact our thoughts, emotions, and behaviour) usually work as either agonists or antagonists for various neurotransmitters. Explain how both an agonist and an antagonist operate on a neurotransmitter. Explain the process of reuptake inhibition and the effect it has on a neurotransmitter.


105. Name three important neurotransmitters and describe what impact each one is thought to have on human experience.


106. Describe the basic components of the reciprocal gene–environment model. Describe the method and findings of one study described in your textbook that illustrates this model. How might this model be misinterpreted by some people?


107. Describe the concept of equifinality. What does this concept say regarding the causes of psychopathology?


108. Describe learned helplessness. How is it developed in laboratory animals and how does it help us to understand human depression?


109. Describe the diathesis–stress model. Use the model to explain how one monozygotic twin suffers from clinical depression while the other does not.


110. What does the cognitive-behavioural model assume to be the cause of depression, and what basic therapy strategy is used in this model for depressed patients? What are “automatic thoughts” and from where do they arise? Give an illustrative example.


Answer Key

1. b


2. a


3. a


4. b


5. a


6. b


7. b


8. a


9. b


10. b


11. d


12. d


13. c


14. d


15. a


16. d


17. b


18. a


19. a


20. a


21. d


22. a


23. d


24. d


25. b


26. b


27. b


28. a


29. a


30. a


31. b


32. c


33. a


34. b


35. c


36. a


37. a


38. c


39. c


40. b


41. d


42. c


43. b


44. b


45. b


46. a


47. b


48. b


49. d


50. d


51. a


52. c


53. a


54. d


55. a


56. c


57. b


58. c


59. c


60. c


61. b


62. a


63. d


64. a


65. a


66. d


67. a


68. a


69. a


70. a


71. a


72. a


73. b


74. c


75. d


76. a


77. c


78. a


79. c


80. a


81. d


82. a


83. a


84. c


85. b


86. a


87. b


88. b


89. c


90. c


91. b


92. c


93. a


94. b


95. a


96. a


97. a


98. d


99. a


100. c


101. Student responses will vary.


102. Student responses will vary.


103. Student responses will vary.


104. Student responses will vary.


105. Student responses will vary.


106. Student responses will vary.


107. Student responses will vary.


108. Student responses will vary.


109. Student responses will vary.


110. Student responses will vary.


chapter 04

Chapter 04


1. Which of the following hypotheses would have adequate testability?

  a. All people see a bright light before they die.
  b. Behaviour is influenced by subconscious thoughts.
  c. Supernatural forces influence our behaviour every day.
  d. Children who view aggression are more likely to act in an aggressive manner.


2. A researcher studying a family with a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) records data for each person in the family with OCD and for those who have been diagnosed with OCD in the past. The researcher is interested in whether family members with OCD share any other inherited characteristics. What type of research is being conducted?

  a. an association study
  b. a chromosome analysis
  c. a genetic linkage analysis
  d. a family DNA analysis


3. Historical case studies have provided new knowledge that has often eliminated existing societal myths. Which of the following researchers contributed to eliminating myths regarding human sexuality?

  a. Nisbett and Ross
  b. Freud and Johnson
  c. Durand and Car
  d. Masters and Johnson


4. Four-year-old Jane took part in a research study that investigated the effects of junk food on obesity in children. When the study was published in a research journal, Jane’s name appeared in the article. What guideline of ethical research involving children was violated?

  a. The researchers must receive proper approval for conducting the study.
  b. Children and parents must be informed of the purposes of the research.
  c. Parental participation must be obtained.
  d. A child’s identity must remain confidential.


5. Combining twin and adoption studies, researchers often study monozygotic twins raised in different families. Using this method, what do similarities in behaviours, traits, and psychological disorders between monozygotic twins raised apart help researchers to determine?

  a. whether it is detrimental to separate twins at birth
  b. the effects of genes on psychological functioning
  c. whether genes or adoption impact psychological functioning
  d. the effects of adoption on a child’s psychological functioning


6. Which of the following is the highest priority when making a decision about whether research is ethical according to the Third Edition of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists?

  a. the potential the research has to benefit society
  b. the welfare of the research participants
  c. whether the research question is valid.
  d. whether participants are assigned to research groups randomly


7. Why are placebos used in experiments?

  a. to control for the expectations of some research participants that they will improve just because they are in a research study
  b. to make certain that the treatment and control groups receive the same number of subjects
  c. to make certain that the treatment and control groups receive the same treatment
  d. to control for the variability of individuals who tend to volunteer for research studies


8. In cross-cultural research, what is the usual independent variable?

  a. the method used to treat the disorder
  b. the disorder
  c. the environment
  d. the culture


9. A researcher studies the impact of stress on college students’ exam scores. Whether the results of this study help us to understand the relationship between job performance and stress levels of real-life organizational workers is a question of which of the following?

  a. external validity
  b. a clinical hypothesis
  c. study confounds
  d. random sampling


10. What are cohort effects?

  a. age and life experiences
  b. age and cultural differences
  c. age and environmental influences
  d. age and genetic influences


11. Which research design is most helpful in determining how individuals with particular disorders change over time?

  a. the experimental method
  b. the cross-sectional design
  c. the longitudinal method
  d. the cohort design


12. A confound in a study makes the results uninterpretable. What does it affect?

  a. testability
  b. test-retest reliability
  c. internal validity
  d. external validity


13. At this point, the human genome project has been successful in producing which of the following?

  a. a map of the structure of human genes, but little success in mapping gene locations
  b. a map of some but not all human genes
  c. a rough draft of the mapping of all human genes
  d. a complete listing of each human gene and its function


14. Which of the following makes it difficult to determine the genetic components of psychological disorders by using family studies?

  a. physical similarities
  b. shared genes
  c. the same socioeconomic conditions
  d. the fact that family members live together


15. Your psychology professor is conducting research and desperately needs more research participants because the existing subjects keep running from the building screaming. She tells the class that everyone must be a subject to get a grade in the class and that there are no exceptions. In terms of ethical treatment of research subjects, what would you say about her policy?

  a. It violates the informed consent concept of volunteerism.
  b. It violates the informed consent concept of competence.
  c. It is acceptable if she carefully explains the experiment to each participant and allows participants to quit if they are uncomfortable during the procedure.
  d. It is acceptable as long as her procedures are presented to the research ethics board.


16. Family studies are often used to help determine whether a psychological disorder has a genetic component. Which of the following patterns is typical for a disorder that is influenced by genetics?

  a. Siblings of the person with the disorder will almost always have the same or similar disorders, and cousins are more likely than the general public to have the disorders.
  b. Siblings will almost always have the same or similar disorders, while cousins may have a similar rate of the disorder as the general public.
  c. Siblings of the person with the disorder are more likely than cousins to have the disorder, and cousins are more likely to have the disorder than the general public.
  d. Siblings of the person with the disorder are more likely to have the disorder than cousins, and cousins are just as likely to have the disorder as the general public.


17. What is the advantage of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment?

  a. The researcher can determine whether improvements gained with treatment are lost when the treatment is withheld.
  b. The researcher can counterbalance the research design with additional measures to improve internal and external validity.
  c. The researcher can conduct a true double-blind experiment.
  d. The researcher can control for the placebo effect.


18. Consider the correlation between the amount of time university students study and their heights in centimetres. What kind of correlation is this?

  a. a zero correlation
  b. a causal correlation
  c. a positive correlation
  d. a negative correlation


19. Genetic linkage analysis has not yet provided the types of answers scientists hope for in terms of understanding the specific genetic influences of psychopathology. Why is this so?

  a. because psychopathology will be easier to measure than to understand
  b. because psychopathology will be impossible to understand until the entire human genome is sequenced
  c. because psychopathology will be difficult to understand with the limited statistical models available
  d. because psychopathology will be based on more than single gene defects


20. Krank and colleagues (2005, 2006) studied the development of alcohol and drug use in British Columbia youth. To do this, they collected cross-sectional survey data from more than 1300 students in grades 7 to 9. For the longitudinal part of the study, they then re-tested the students once a year for the next two academic years. What is this combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional methods in one study called?

  a. a cross-linkage research design
  b. a cohort research design
  c. a sequential research design
  d. an association research design


21. In what type of study does a researcher manipulate an independent variable and observe the effects on a dependent variable?

  a. a case study
  b. a correlational study
  c. an experiment
  d. an epidemiological study


22. In an attempt to compare treatment strategies in various psychiatric settings, researchers are evaluating the psychiatric patients’ levels of depression every four months for four years in three different hospitals. What type of research are they applying?

  a. cross-sequential research
  b. longitudinal research
  c. cross-sectional research
  d. naturalistic research


23. In the early 20th century, many people displayed symptoms of a disorder similar to organic psychosis. Most of these people were also poor, which led to speculation about class inferiority. Goldberger found correlations between the disorder and diet, and identified the cause of the disorder as a deficiency of the B vitamin niacin. What was this research study an early example of?

  a. clinical psychology
  b. experimental research
  c. the case study method
  d. epidemiology


24. When a control group is used in experimental research, how will the members of the control group be treated?

  a. the same as the control group in any other psychology study
  b. the same as the treatment group except that they will be given psychological therapy
  c. the same as the treatment group except that they will not be exposed to the independent variable
  d. the same as the treatment group except that they will be exposed to the independent variable


25. Why is randomization used to assign research participants to groups?

  a. to prevent assembling groups that differ in a way that may influence the research outcome
  b. to make sure that all participants in the study are the same on the dependent variable when the study is concluded
  c. to make sure that all participants are the same on the independent variable before the study begins
  d. to prevent any differences in the way the independent variable is manipulated for all research subjects


26. What does “phenotype” refer to?

  a. hidden characteristics
  b. cognitive influences
  c. observable characteristics
  d. environmental influences


27. Dr. Ahmed is studying the psychological experiences of the residents of Fort McMurray, Alberta, following the devastating fire that engulfed the town. What research method is Dr. Ahmed MOST likely using?

  a. the experiment
  b. the longitudinal study
  c. the correlational model
  d. the case study


28. A researcher has found that the more hours students spend socializing, the lower their exam scores tend to be. What do the findings of this study illustrate?

  a. a statistical discrepancy
  b. a reciprocal inhibition
  c. an incongruent outcome
  d. a correlation with a positive direction


29. Two monozygotic twins are raised in very different environments. One is adopted into a loving, healthy environment and the other is raised in a war-ravaged country where food, safety, and family support are hard to find. Compared to the child raised in the war-ravaged country, the child raised in the healthy environment will most likely be which of the following?

  a. significantly taller and less likely to have psychological problems
  b. physically weaker, but likely less likely to have psychological problems
  c. quite similar in almost every way
  d. about the same height but less likely to have psychological problems


30. Dr. Eso finds that as scores on one depression scale increase by one, scores on a different depression scale also increase by one. What is the correlation between the scores on the two depression scales?

  a. –1.00
  b. +1.00
  c. 0
  d. causal


31. What type of research compares people with a specific disorder to those without the disorder, and then identifies markers that occur significantly more often in people with the disorder?

  a. a genetic linkage study
  b. a family study
  c. a heritability analysis
  d. an association study


32. What is the purpose of random assignment?

  a. to ensure that each research participant spends an equal amount of time in the treatment and control groups
  b. to ensure that each research participant has an equal chance of being in the treatment or control group
  c. to ensure that everyone in each group is exactly the same on the independent variable
  d. to ensure that everyone in each group is exactly the same on the dependent variable


33. Dr. Allen is lobbying the government to start a reading program for all children who live in regions where school achievement is lower than average. What type of program would this be?

  a. a universal prevention strategy
  b. a selective prevention strategy
  c. a health promotion strategy
  d. an experimental prevention strategy


34. A new research study is published and becomes the “hot daily news story.” This story concerns you because the researchers report that they are the first scientists to find a higher incidence of depression for individuals taking a particular vitamin—the same vitamin that your physician has had you taking for years. While this may be cause for you to investigate further, why should you probably NOT panic?

  a. Unless it was a double-blind experiment, the results are probably in error.
  b. Research like this is rarely accurate.
  c. Without replication, the finding could just be due to coincidence.
  d. Your physician would have also relied on his own patient feedback throughout the years.


35. Why is it important to use a double-blind procedure in some research studies?

  a. to prevent the participants’ expectations from biasing the expectations of the researcher
  b. to prevent the independent variable from influencing the dependent variable
  c. to prevent the researcher’s expectations from biasing the outcome
  d. to prevent the confusion of correlation with causation


36. One of the problems with longitudinal research is that it may be difficult to generalize the findings to other cohorts whose life experiences are very different from those of the study participants. What is this phenomenon known as?

  a. the cross-generational effect
  b. the cross-cultural effect
  c. the peer effect
  d. the cohort effect


37. A child is having temper tantrums at home, at school, and at his grandparents’ house. After working with the parents for a while, the therapist believes that the child is being rewarded for his tantrums in each setting because his teacher, parents, and grandparents generally give him what he wants just to make him stop yelling. The therapist devises a plan to stop his tantrums but implements the plan at home first, at school the following week, and at the grandparents’ home several weeks later. From a research perspective, what is this strategy an example of?

  a. multiple baseline
  b. repeated measures
  c. withdrawal method
  d. placebo control


38. Why do repeated measures improve internal validity in a single-case experiment?

  a. They provide increased interaction between the researcher and the participant.
  b. They provide a check on the randomization procedure.
  c. They provide a more reliable measure of behaviour both before and after treatment.
  d. They provide more data for statistical significance tests.


39. Your friend Sally has trouble making commitments in relationships, and you believe that this is because Sally’s parents had a bitter divorce when she was young. What is exemplified by your belief that a child who lives through a bitter parental divorce will have trouble making commitments in relationships as an adult?

  a. an applied theory
  b. an independent variable
  c. a hypothesis
  d. an empirical inference


40. One of the major problems with the case study method is that it is too easy to make false conclusions based on which of the following?

  a. statistical significance
  b. poorly defined dependent variables
  c. correlations
  d. coincidence


41. What is the key element in a double-blind control study?

  a. Neither the treatment provider nor the research participants know whether the treatment will be effective.
  b. Neither the treatment provider nor the research participants can ever be made aware of the research findings.
  c. Neither the treatment provider nor the research participants are aware of who is in the treatment group and who is in the control group.
  d. The research participants are not aware that they are participating in a research study.


42. What kind of study is conducted to identify the location of genes that may be associated with specific psychological disorders?

  a. a single-case genetic experiment
  b. a genetic linkage analysis
  c. a family DNA study
  d. a comparative gene analysis


43. Which of the following is an example of treatment process research?

  a. determining which treatment reduces patients’ anxiety in the fewest sessions
  b. examining the impact of Prozac on serotonin levels
  c. determining how many therapy sessions it takes for most anxiety patients to feel better
  d. examining the impact of Prozac on depression


44. What does the most influential and successful research generally involve?

  a. multiple longitudinal designs over a period of time
  b. a combination of well-controlled correlational studies and cross-sectional research
  c. a program of research that uses multiple research designs over a period of time
  d. multiple, well-controlled, double-blind experiments


45. What does the prevalence of a disorder refer to?

  a. the relative seriousness of one disorder to other disorders
  b. the number of people with a disorder at any one time
  c. the estimated number of new cases during a specific period of time
  d. the incidence, distribution, and consequences of a problem in a population


46. Which of the following genetic mechanisms contributes to the underlying problems that cause the difficulties experienced by people with psychological disorders?

  a. electrolytes
  b. phenotypes
  c. endophenotypes
  d. genotypes


47. In well-designed research studies, medications that enhance serotonin functioning have been found to help groups of patients recover from episodes of depression. Based on this information, which of the following would be an appropriate conclusion?

  a. that only the most severely depressed patients will be helped by these medications
  b. that medication is always appropriate treatment for psychological disorders
  c. that medication can potentially be a treatment for depression
  d. that serotonin malfunctioning causes depression


48. Which of the following can family, twin, and adoption studies NOT identify?

  a. whether a particular form of psychopathology is influenced by genes
  b. the approximate degree of influence of genetics for a specific psychological disorder
  c. the location of a gene associated with psychopathology
  d. whether a particular form of psychopathology is influenced by the environment


49. A researcher examines the effects of violent media on aggressive behaviour in a lab setting. The experimental group views a violent video clip, and the control group views a nonviolent video clip. This method is used instead of asking participants to monitor their naturally occurring TV viewing to reduce the possibility of confounds, such as variations in the level and amount of aggressive images they watch. In doing so, the researcher will increase the internal validity of her study, but which of the following does she risk reducing?

  a. the confounds of her results
  b. the statistical significance of her results
  c. the generalizability of her results
  d. the clinical significance of her results


50. What problem is shared by the placebo, control method, and the withdrawal design method?

  a. the concern about withholding treatment from those who need it
  b. the issue of tricking people into thinking that they will get better
  c. the fact that the individual will likely respond to the unique circumstances of the research setting
  d. the lack of control of the independent variable


51. Dr. Marx says that a study he is reviewing has good internal validity. This means that Dr. Marx believes:

  a. the results of the study can be explained by the independent variable
  b. the results of the study can be explained by the dependent variable
  c. the sampling procedure is supported by the study
  d. the hypothesis is supported by the study


52. The internal validity of a study can be increased by using which of the following to create different research groups?

  a. valid measures
  b. generalizable methods
  c. randomization
  d. the personal characteristics of potential participants


53. The effects of a study on sleep finds that research participants who took a supplement slept an average of 7 hours and 25 minutes per night. The participants who were given a placebo pill slept for an average of 7 hours and 20 minutes. How are these findings best described?

  a. clinically significant
  b. statistically significant
  c. not clinically significant
  d. not valid


54. Professor Black is asked by one of his students to describe the meaning of a hypothesis. What should Professor Black say?

  a. A hypothesis is a question.
  b. A hypothesis is a statement of fact
  c. A hypothesis is a prediction about behaviour.
  d. A hypothesis is an established theory.


55. According to your textbook, what is one of the most important reasons to conduct cross-cultural research in psychopathology?

  a. We can understand more about psychopathology by understanding how culture is reflected in the experience of various disorders.
  b. Genetic influences of disorders can be best determined through careful comparison of the different environmental stressors found in various cultures.
  c. The stigma of psychopathology can be removed by understanding that psychopathology exists in all cultures.
  d. We can gain a better appreciation for the virtues of various cultures by examining how psychopathology is viewed by different cultures.


56. Single-case experimental designs utilize several strategies to improve their internal validity. Which of the following is one of these strategies?

  a. repeated measures
  b. random assignment
  c. process measures
  d. placebo controls


57. Which of the following is a problem in understanding variations in behaviour among individuals from different cultural groups?

  a. The differences may be due to environmental factors.
  b. The differences may be due to genetic or cultural factors or a combination of both.
  c. Different cultural research methods are used to study and define psychopathology.
  d. Different research methods are used to study psychopathology across cultures.


58. Given what we know about the effects of genes and the environment, which of the following pairs of children would be expected to be most similar in terms of overall personality, psychological disorders, and intelligence?

  a. biological siblings, each adopted immediately after birth, one raised in Vancouver and the other raised in Toronto
  b. dizygotic twins, one raised in a wealthy family living in a modern city and the other raised in poverty in a developing nation
  c. biological siblings raised in the same home
  d. adopted children from different biological families raised in the same home


59. Approximately how many genes were discovered in the human genome project?

  a. 10 000
  b. 25 000
  c. 75 000
  d. 125 000


60. Joe has been diagnosed by his psychiatrist as having an anxiety disorder. His psychiatrist prescribes a medication that has been found to help reduce anxiety. Joe takes the medication but his anxiety level does not improve at all. Since an anxiety medication did not work, Joe concludes that his psychiatrist must be wrong and that he, Joe, must be suffering from some other disorder. What is the problem with Joe’s conclusion?

  a. He is failing to consider the external validity of the prior research.
  b. He is failing to consider the internal validity of the research studies.
  c. He is failing to consider the lack of clinical significance of many research findings.
  d. He is failing to consider the patient uniformity myth.


61. Why do researchers use control groups?

  a. to compare previously completed academic studies
  b. to make comparisons with the treatment group
  c. to randomize the experiment
  d. to control the hypothesis


62. When conducting research with adults who have been diagnosed with a psychological disorder, which of the following is essential regarding consent?

  a. You need to ensure that the psychological disorder they have would not impair their ability to give free and informed consent.
  b. Informed consent must be given by a mentally competent family member or guardian.
  c. Informed consent is not necessary.
  d. It is necessary to have the research procedures approved by the Canadian Psychological Association.


63. What does the term “external validity” refer to?

  a. the degree to which we can attribute the results to the effects of the independent variable
  b. the degree to which the dependent variable was changed in the study
  c. the power of the independent variable to cause a change in the dependent variable
  d. the extent to which findings apply to individuals or situations other than those studied


64. Brown and Finn (1982) found that attitudes regarding alcohol were somewhat different for 12-, 15-, and 17-year-olds. All measures were taken during the same year from children of different ages. What kind of research method is this?

  a. experimental
  b. cross-sectional
  c. case study
  d. longitudinal


65. Barlow’s research team had reason to celebrate. A similar team at another university had been able to replicate their findings. What did the second team do?

  a. They identified the strengths and weaknesses of the original research.
  b. They used the research of the first team to take the project to a new level.
  c. They repeated the research of the first team and generated identical results.
  d. They found that the negative correlations were actually positive.


66. What is the purpose of a control group in experimental research?

  a. to reduce demand characteristics
  b. to determine whether a independent variable actually caused a change in the dependent variable
  c. to keep constant the level of the independent variable being tested in the treatment group
  d. to control all the factors that might affect the treatment outcome


67. Which of the following would be the most likely correlation between the number of hours that a student studies for her tests and her exam grades?

  a. approximately –0.50
  b. approximately 0.00
  c. approximately 0.50
  d. approximately 1.00


68. In a control group, which of the following is NOT a way people are similar to the experimental group?

  a. They have been exposed to the independent variable, but have been told they are receiving a placebo.
  b. They are not exposed to the dependent variable at all.
  c. They have not been exposed to the independent variable, but have been told they are receiving a placebo.
  d. They are not exposed to the independent variable at all.


69. Your friend was the recipient of a nine-month research grant. Based on her interests, she can choose one of the four areas of concentration. She has always wanted to work with street youth. Based on this fact, what prevention strategy will she most likely choose?

  a. a selective prevention strategy
  b. a universal prevention strategy
  c. a positive development strategy
  d. an indicated prevention strategy


70. Which of the following questions could be answered using a cross-sectional design?

  a. What early behaviours did adult panic disorder patients tend to display when they were young?
  b. Are the cognitive triggers for panic disorder different in children and adults?
  c. How does panic disorder develop from childhood to adulthood in an individual?
  d. Does the severity of anxiety change over time?


71. “I remember being a very shy child, keeping to myself, and reading books. As an adolescent, I became more serious and quiet. As a young adult, I became more confident and outgoing.” What type of research would this kind of information be used for?

  a. a longitudinal study
  b. a sequential study
  c. a correlational study
  d. a cross-sectional study


72. What is a hypothesis?

  a. a research question tested through experimentation
  b. a theory that is based on available information
  c. a prediction about behaviour that is derived from theory and is tested through research
  d. a research question formulated through observation of daily occurrence


73. To study how anxiety disorders develop in individuals, a researcher asks a group of adults whether they were anxious about school when they were children, and then measures their current functioning with respect to symptoms of anxiety. What is one significant limitation of this approach?

  a. The information about childhood experiences is retrospective in nature and may not be accurate.
  b. It confuses age differences with cohort effects.
  c. It measures only change within individuals, not differences between groups.
  d. Genetics and early life experiences are confounded.


74. Why are analogue models used?

  a. to create laboratory studies that are comparable to the real-life phenomenon being studied
  b. to create laboratory studies that replicate earlier conducted studies
  c. to create laboratory studies that produce reliable results
  d. to create laboratory studies that include and observe both treatment and control groups


75. While trying to discover the nature of the relationship between stress and blood pressure, a researcher asks participants to complete a difficult task. The researcher monitors the participants’ blood pressure while exposing some participants to noisy distractions and other participants to a quiet environment. What type of research study is this?

  a. a correlational study
  b. a case study
  c. a placebo control study
  d. an experiment


76. While studying the impact of nutrition on intelligence, a researcher gives one group of rats a vitamin-rich diet while the other rat group eats Big Macs. While observing the rats run a complicated maze, the researcher notes that the vitamin-enhanced rats’ maze is more brightly lit than the Big Mac rats’ maze. What is the difference in lighting in this study?

  a. a hypothesis
  b. an independent variable
  c. a dependent variable
  d. a confound


77. Unlike her mother, Mary has bright red hair; however, Mary’s maternal grandmother has the same colour of hair. In other words, grandmother and granddaughter look alike. What is exemplified by the fact that Mary does not look like her mother but she looks like her maternal grandmother?

  a. endophenotypes
  b. phenotype
  c. genotype
  d. proband types


78. Statistical significance determines whether an observed difference between a treatment and control group is likely due to which of the following?

  a. random assignment
  b. external validity
  c. chance
  d. confounds


79. A researcher is testing the effects of violent media images on tolerance for aggressive behaviour by showing either nonviolent or violent movie scenes to participants and then asking the participants to rate the level of aggression they perceive in children interacting on a playground. Which of the following is the independent variable?

  a. the type of video that is shown
  b. how aggressive the children are behaving on the playground
  c. the participants’ rating of aggression
  d. tolerance for aggression


80. Dr. Seto is considering using a  withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment, but she has one major concern about this method. What concern does Dr. Seto MOST likely have?

  a. She would be concerned that it is impossible to remove the treatment equally for the treatment and control subjects.
  b. She would be concerned that it is difficult to measure changes that are associated with removal of a treatment.
  c. She would be concerned about the placebo effect when the treatment is removed.
  d. She would be concerned about removing treatment that appears to be helping the patient.


81. What is the term for the study of treatment interventions that may help avert later problems?

  a. preintervention research
  b. process-focused research
  c. outcome-focused research
  d. selective-prevention research


82. Researchers predicted that the parents of children who “act out” at school would see a decrease in that behaviour if they themselves were to take problem-solving skills training. In this example, what were the researchers hypothesizing about parental problem-solving skills and children’s acting-out behaviours?

  a. that they are weakly correlated
  b. that they are positively correlated
  c. that they are strongly correlated
  d. that they are negatively correlated


83. Why are adoption studies often used when attempting to study the influence of genetic factors on psychological disorders?

  a. because they allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology using more sophisticated statistical techniques
  b. because they allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology without the typical confound of having siblings raised in the same environment
  c. because they allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology without the typical confound of common biological parents
  d. because they allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology through direct examination of genetic causes


84. If you study two variables using the correlation method, what can you determine?

  a. how one variable causes changes in the other variable
  b. how the variables are related to one another
  c. whether both variables are affected by a third variable
  d. whether one variable produces a confound in studying the second variable


85. What is one reason why cross-sectional studies are more common than longitudinal studies?

  a. Cross-sectional studies involve a very small number of subjects.
  b. Cross-sectional studies produce more accurate results.
  c. Longitudinal studies take many years to complete.
  d. Longitudinal studies involve very sophisticated statistical procedures.


86. Which of the following is an example of treatment outcome research?

  a. determining whether a medication actually has any impact on the function of the brain
  b. examining the changes in serotonin levels from taking medication
  c. exploring the parts of cognitive-behavioural therapy homework that are most difficult for patients to perform
  d. examining the impact of medication on depression


87. Which of the following might be a situation where you observe the “allegiance effect” in a double-blind study?

  a. The researcher tries to replicate the results of an earlier study.
  b. A treatment doesn’t seem to be working, so the researcher puts less effort into that treatment group.
  c. The participants in the treatment group show a greater commitment to the study than do participants in the control group.
  d. The researcher and the participants in the control group work together to bring about a treatment effect.


88. What do genetic researchers examine in family studies?

  a. genetic influences on family behavioural patterns
  b. the genetic mapping of a disorder across relatives of the proband
  c. environmental influences on the genotype
  d. a behavioural pattern or emotional trait in the context of the family


89. The more a researcher controls internal validity by restricting the study to participants who are similar to one another, the less of which type of validity will the study generally contain?

  a. internal validity
  b. clinical validity
  c. external validity
  d. sequential validity


90. In prevention research, what are the two most frequently used methods for examining psychopathology across time?

  a. longitudinal and case study
  b. longitudinal and experimental
  c. longitudinal and sequential
  d. longitudinal and cross-sectional


91. According to the requirements of “informed consent,” what are research participants in a blind, placebo-controlled study told?

  a. that their results may or may not be incorporated into the research evaluation
  b. that they will definitely be receiving the treatment
  c. that they will not receive the treatment until the research study is over
  d. that they may or may not receive treatment


92. What does the incidence of a disorder refer to?

  a. the predicted number of new cases during the coming year
  b. the estimated number of new cases during a specific period of time
  c. the distribution and consequences of a problem in a population
  d. the number of people with a disorder at any one time


93. Dr. Ishmael wants to use a case study design. Which of the following is a possible problem her chosen method?

  a. It includes the use of the experimental method.
  b. It has high internal validity but external validity is frequently compromised.
  c. The results may be unique to the particular person(s) being studied.
  d. The characteristics of one individual can rarely tell you anything meaningful about a disorder.


94. What is one problem with longitudinal research?

  a. The research question may be confounded with cohort effects.
  b. The research question may become less valid as people age.
  c. The research question may become irrelevant by the time the study is complete.
  d. The research question may not be answerable and the time spent will be wasted.


95. A researcher is studying how people of different ages tend to experience anxiety. The researcher interviews anxious adolescents, young adults, individuals in their 30s and 50s, and those over 70. What do the individuals in each age group represent?

  a. a cross-section
  b. a cohort
  c. a longitudinal group
  d. an experimental group


96. In research, what does the term “clinical significance” refer to?

  a. whether the effects observed in the study are due to controlled sampling
  b. whether the effects observed in the study are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
  c. whether the effects observed in the study are due to chance
  d. how important the effects are in the “real world”


97. What is one reason that we can expect rapid increases in our understanding of the genetic influences of psychopathology over the next several years?

  a. the new brain-scanning technology
  b. the discovery of the double helix
  c. the recent availability of fast, high-tech computers
  d. the success of the human genome project


98. What do you call any factor in a research study that makes the results uninterpretable?

  a. a null variable
  b. a dependent variable
  c. a correlate
  d. a confound


99. What is the main advantage of longitudinal research over cross-sectional research?

  a. Longitudinal research can assess individual change and allows examination of cohort effects.
  b. Longitudinal research can distinguish between cause and effect and allow examination of cohort effects.
  c. Longitudinal research can assess individual change and avoid cohort effects.
  d. Longitudinal research is easier to use and allows examination of causal influences.


100. There are four basic components of informed consent; competence and volunteerism are two of these. What are the other two?

  a. anonymity and full information
  b. full information and comprehension
  c. knowledge of results and anonymity
  d. comprehension and knowledge of results




101. Explain the importance of studying cross-cultural psychopathology. Describe at least two significant obstacles to studying a disorder across different cultures.


102. Describe how genetic linkage studies are conducted and how these studies may help identify the specific locations of genes influencing a particular form of psychopathology.


103. Describe the case study as a research method. Explain several advantages and disadvantages of the case study as a research method.


104. Explain how family studies are used to help determine the role of genetic factors in psychopathology. Describe the limitations of family studies in determining the genetic factors influencing psychopathology.


105. Describe correlational research. Explain the statistic used to represent the relationship between variables. Provide and explain an illustrative example of two variables that are negatively correlated. Discuss the advantages and limitations of the correlational method.


106. Describe each of the four components of informed consent for research participants. Explain the difficulties involved with obtaining informed consent from child participants and how the Society for Research in Child Development has addressed this problem.


107. Explain the unique ways that monozygotic twins raised in separate environments help us to understand the genetic influences of psychopathology.


108. Describe the experiment as it is used in group research. Explain the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of the experiment as a research method.


109. Describe the differences between the statistical and clinical significance of research findings. Explain why it is important to make a distinction between statistical and clinical significance when interpreting research findings.


110. Define the term “hypothesis” and create two different testable hypotheses regarding possible causes of depression.


111. Describe the differences between the cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods. What are the uses and limitations of each of these methods? Provide an illustrative example of a research question that would be better addressed by a longitudinal study than by a cross-sectional study and explain why.


Answer Key

1. d


2. c


3. d


4. d


5. b


6. b


7. a


8. d


9. a


10. a


11. c


12. c


13. c


14. d


15. a


16. c


17. a


18. a


19. d


20. c


21. c


22. b


23. d


24. c


25. a


26. c


27. c


28. d


29. a


30. b


31. d


32. b


33. a


34. c


35. c


36. a


37. a


38. c


39. c


40. d


41. c


42. b


43. b


44. c


45. b


46. c


47. c


48. c


49. c


50. a


51. a


52. c


53. c


54. c


55. a


56. a


57. b


58. c


59. b


60. d


61. b


62. a


63. d


64. b


65. c


66. b


67. c


68. d


69. a


70. b


71. a


72. c


73. a


74. a


75. d


76. d


77. c


78. c


79. a


80. d


81. d


82. d


83. b


84. b


85. c


86. d


87. b


88. d


89. c


90. d


91. d


92. b


93. c


94. c


95. b


96. d


97. d


98. d


99. c


100. b


101. Student responses will vary.


102. Student responses will vary.


103. Student responses will vary.


104. Student responses will vary.


105. Student responses will vary.


106. Student responses will vary.


107. Student responses will vary.


108. Student responses will vary.


109. Student responses will vary.


110. Student responses will vary.


111. Student responses will vary.




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