American Ethnicity The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination 7Th Edition By Adalberto – Test Bank


Pay & Download



American Ethnicity The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination 7Th Edition By Adalberto – Test Bank

 Sample Questions

Instant Download With Answers

Chapter 02

Explaining Ethnic Relations



Essay Questions

  1. Is multiculturalism in America a sign of increasing cultural heterogeneity or a sign that ethnic populations are not successful in their efforts at structural assimilation?

Answers will vary


  1. Is Robert Park’s assimilation theory an adequate explanation for the assimilation of Mexican immigrants in America in the 1990s?

Answers will vary


  1. How can subordinate ethnic subpopulations break the cycle of identifiability discrimination?

Answers will vary


  1. Are there conditions under which hostility toward a subordinate ethnic subpopulation can be reduced or eliminated?

Answers will vary


  1. If ethnic subpopulations are relatively powerless in society—politically, economically, and educationally—why does the dominant population perceive them as threats?

Answers will vary



  1. Let us assume that America decides to accept only wealthy and highly educated immigrants. Do you think that this policy would prevent problems of discrimination and prejudice? Why or why not?

Answers will vary


  1. Even though some white ethnic subpopulations have maintained elements of their ethnicity (holidays, festivities, religions), why don’t these elements distinguish white ethnic subpopulations in a highly visible way?

Answers will vary


  1. Why are middleman minorities often viewed by their clients as mercenary and exploitive?

Answers will vary


  1. What does it mean to say that there are splits within each class along ethnic lines? Can you find examples to support your response?

Answers will vary


  1. How do split-labor market theories differ from ecological theories?

Answers will vary


  1. What are the reasons for internal colonialism in America?

Answers will vary



  1. What biological links do persons in the same family structure share?

Answers will vary


  1. What is the difference between assimilation theories and pluralism theories?

Answers will vary


  1. What does an ethnic group’s assimilation into a host society say about the discrimination faced by the group?

Answers will vary


  1. Is it possible for a person to assimilate to the culture of a host society but not be incorporated into the host society’s major institutions?

Answers will vary


  1. Why is it easier for American society to maintain negative images for minorities than positive images?

Answers will vary


  1. Discuss the varying types of assimilation that can occur.

Answers will vary



  1. Why do pluralism theories take issue with assimilation theories?

Answers will vary


  1. What are the key ideas behind the new biological theories?

Answers will vary


  1. In what way is the notion of competition an important element in human ecological theories, split-labor market theories, split-class theories, and middleman minority theories?

Answers will vary


  1. How do internal colonialism theories borrow from notions of external colonialism in which one nation controls another?

Answers will vary


  1. What are the essential forces that drive discrimination in the unified theory presented at the end of the chapter?

Answers will vary



True / False Questions

  1. Pluralism theories arose as a reaction to assimilation theories.



  1. Structural assimilation is much easier to achieve than cultural assimilation.


  1. Unlike ethnics of “color,” all white ethnics are fully integrated into the Anglo-Saxon mainstream.


  1. “Ethny” is a term developed by ecological theories to explain ethnic discrimination.


  1. Ecological theories stress the importance of competition for resources as the force behind ethnic conflict.


  1. Caste theories emphasize the economic interests of elites in maintaining a poor and permanently subordinate ethnic labor pool.


  1. Internal colonialism theories stress the desire of one population for inexpensive labor and control of land.


  1. Split-labor market theories fail to emphasize the importance of power in labor markets.


  1. Split-class theories emphasize the differences between and within social classes.



  1. Split-class theories emphasize that within every class there are dominant and subordinate segments, and that often the subordinate segment is an ethnic minority.


  1. Middleman minority theories concentrate on business activities of the dominant ethnic subpopulation.


  1. Middleman minority theories emphasize the mobility of low-class ethnics to the middle classes.


  1. The identifiability of an ethnic subpopulation is always based on biological features.


  1. The size of an ethnic subpopulation has little impact on the pattern of discrimination it will experience.


  1. Only a comparatively small ethnic subpopulation can become a middleman minority.


  1. The discrimination and identifiability of an ethnic subpopulation are mutually reinforcing.



  1. It is fair to say that ultimately, a sense of threat by a superordinate ethnic subpopulation is the fuel behind its discrimination.


  1. Large ethnic subpopulations can easily move into middleman minority niches.


  1. Egalitarian values can help break the cycles revolving around discrimination.


  1. Discrimination against other ethnics often has the ironic consequence of increasing the sense of threat experienced by discriminators.


  1. American’s egalitarianism is composed of a contradiction between the core values of “individualism” and “humanitarianism.”


  1. Superordinate subpopulations target ethnic subordinate subpopulations for discrimination in order for superordinate subpopulations to maintain “their way of life.”


  1. Cultural assimilation guarantees a subordinate ethnic subpopulation’s structural assimilation.



  1. Ethnic stereotypes are necessary to maintaining positive images and beliefs for ethnic subpopulations.


  1. Subordinate ethnic subpopulations are likely to find themselves at the bottom of the stratification system if they are large.


  1. Based on the findings of public opinion polls, Americans are opposed to group preference approaches for ethnic minorities.


  1. The fewer resource shares an ethnic subpopulation has, the more discrimination it faces in society.


  1. Increased identifiability for an ethnic subpopulation lowers the population’s risk of being a target of discrimination.


  1. The clients of middleman minorities often view them as mercenary and exploitive.


  1. In the split-labor market perspective, the low wages paid to ethnic subpopulations are necessary for securing better working conditions for white workers.



  1. The inability of the descendants of early European white immigrants to control the political power of the state prevented the establishment of internal colonialism in America.


  1. From the internal colonization perspective, the history of ethnic relations in America has resulted in internal colonies of nonwhites being dominated by descendants of the original Anglo-Saxon Protestant core.


  1. According to ecological theories, competition for resources often increases the level of conflict between ethnic subpopulations.


  1. From a sociobiological point of view, the individual is a permanent vessel for genes.


  1. Ecological and sociobiological theories of ethnicity are virtually the same, with only minor points of divergence.


  1. Nathan Glazer and Daniel Moynihan argue that all white ethnic groups are assimilated to the middle-class, Anglo-Saxon Protestant core.


  1. According to pluralist theories, the maintenance of an ethnic identity is often a way of coping with discrimination.



  1. An ethnic group’s degree of assimilation to a host society can provide clues regarding the type of discrimination experienced by the group.



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The term “melting pot” is most likely to be associated with
    A.ecological theories.
    B. biological theories.
    C. assimilation theories.
    D. split-class theories.


  1. The internal colonialism model of ethnic relations best fits which group(s) in the United States?
    A.Native Americans
    B. African Americans
    C. Mexican Americans
    D. all of the above


  1. From which of the following theories is a middleman minority theory least likely to draw inspiration?
    A.ecological theories
    B. assimilation theories
    C. split-class theories
    D. split-labor market theories


  1. In Milton Gordon’s discussion of types of assimilation, which one is the most difficult to achieve?
    A.marital assimilation
    B. structural assimilation
    C. identification assimilation
    D. behavioral-receptional assimilation



  1. Which is not a stratification theory, as described in the text?
    A.split-labor market theories
    B. pluralism theories
    C. internal colonialism theories
    D. split-class theories


  1. As the size of ethnic subordinate subpopulations increases, their identifiability increases, which, in turn, results in increased
    B. assimilation.
    C. hostility.
    D. inclusion.


  1. __________ and __________ most affect the levels of valued resources available to an ethnic subpopulation.
    A.Intelligence, hard work
    B. Money, religion
    C. Prejudice, opportunity
    D. Identifiability, discrimination


  1. Which factor most increases the risk of an ethnic subpopulation’s exposure to discrimination?
    B. degree of identifiability
    C. increased economic opportunity
    D. economic success


  1. Splits in social classes along ethnic lines
    A.increase the economic opportunities of ethnic subpopulations.
    B. increase the representation of ethnic subpopulations in desirable jobs.
    C. increase job security for ethnic subpopulations.
    D. increase the subordination of ethnic subpopulations into low-paying, less desirable and less secure jobs.



  1. Split-class theories emphasize
    A.the availability of social opportunity for those in lower social classes.
    B. the control of capital investment by capitalists.
    C. the lower-class ability to own businesses and buy labor.
    D. the good will of those in higher social classes.


  1. The colonization complex is identified by
    A.voluntary entry into a territory and its population.
    B. maintenance of the indigenous culture and patterns of social organization.
    C. democratic treatment of the indigenous population.
    D. domination of the indigenous population by an invading population.


  1. Ecological theories emphasize
    A.migration patterns of ethnic subpopulations.
    B. collaboration between ethnic subpopulations regarding competition for housing and jobs.
    C. incorporation of ethnic subpopulations into major political institutions.
    D. passive acceptance in the pattern of resource distribution.


  1. An ethny is a cluster of kinship circles that
    A.is created through exogamy.
    B. depends on territorial separation.
    C. represents a reproductive strategy.
    D. focuses on those “different from oneself.”


  1. Which of the following is not an assumption in biological theories?
    A.Genes rather than the individual are the ultimate unit of natural selection.
    B. Individuals are creators of their own genes.
    C. Individuals are only temporary vessels for genes.
    D. Genes are “selfish.”



  1. Robert Park saw assimilation as a process that
    A.leads to the incorporation of people and groups into a common culture.
    B. causes rebellion by persons and groups fighting for their own identity.
    C. segregates and isolates persons and groups in society.
    D. causes persons and groups to leave the society.


  1. Theories are designed to
    A.describe events.
    B. categorize events.
    C. speculate on events.
    D. explain events.


  1. The distinctiveness of an ethnic subpopulation is least related to which force?
    B. negative stereotypes
    C. stratification
    D. assimilation


  1. Which force is the most important in driving prejudice and discrimination?
    B. sense of threat
    C. egalitarian values
    D. resource shares


  1. Middleman minority theories do not emphasize which of the following?
    A.resources of ethnics
    B. threats among ethnics
    C. assimilation of ethnics
    D. petit bourgeois activities



  1. Which is least important in split-class theories?
    A.divisions between social classes
    B. divisions within social classes
    C. divisions in the upper class
    D. divisions in the lower class


  1. Which is the least important to split-labor market theories?
    A.maintenance of low wages
    B. separation of higher-and lower-wage ethnics
    C. maximization of profits
    D. avoidance of competition among ethnics


  1. Which is not true for the argument in split labor market theories?
    A.Capitalists and labor have similar interest in splitting the labor market.
    B. Workers are fearful of lower-priced labor.
    C. Capitalists always seek lower-priced labor.
    D. Higher-priced workers use splitting the labor market as a fall-back option.


  1. Which is the least important force behind internal colonization theories?
    A.the desire for cheap labor
    B. the desire to take land
    C. the desire to demonstrate cultural superiority
    D. the desire to force assimilation


  1. Which of the following do ecological theories not emphasize?
    A.genic selection and evolution
    B. competition for resources
    C. migration patterns
    D. conflict



  1. From Pierre van den Berghe’s sociobiological perspective, the tendency of humans to form an “ethny” is ultimately created by
    A.natural selection.
    B. discrimination.
    C. failed assimilation.
    D. none of the above.


  1. Sociobiological theories of ethnicity emphasize which of the following?
    A.the impact of culture on genes
    B. the constraints of social structure on genes
    C. the strategies of genes to stay in the gene pool
    D. all of the above


  1. Which is not a type of assimilation discussed by Milton Gordon
    A.identification assimilation
    B. civic assimilation
    C. attitude-receptional assimilation
    D. cultural-receptional assimilation


  1. A fair criticism against assimilation theories is that they
    A.paint an overly optimistic view of ethnic relations.
    B. fail to discuss the stages of assimilation.
    C. fail to consider non-white ethnics.
    D. all of the above


  1. Which is not a stage in Robert Park’s portrayal of the assimilation process?
    A.competitive phase
    B. accommodative phase
    C. rebellious phase
    D. assimilation phase



Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Social phenomena, such as ethnic relations, are explained by _________.


  1. The term for describing the process of creating a distinctive ethnicity as a means of adapting to discrimination is _________.


  1. The way in which social classes become internally partitioned is the focus of _____________ theory.


  1. The notion of ethny is prominent in __________ theories.
    biological, or sociobiological


  1. Efforts of higher-price labor to partition the work force in the face of efforts by capitalists to undercut wages with lower-priced ethnic labor are the key ideas in __________ theories.
    split-labor market


  1. Competition in resource niches is a key idea in _________.
    human ecology, or ecological theories


  1. The notion of a “melting pot” is most prominent in __________ theories.




  1. __________ assimilation is the process by which persons and groups adopt values, beliefs, ideologies, and other symbol systems.


  1. The greater the sense of __________ experienced by superordinate ethnic subpopulations, the greater is their __________ toward subordinate ethnic subpopulations.
    threat; hostility


  1. The degree of discrimination faced by an ethnic subpopulation is directly associated with the subpopulation’s level of __________ in society.


  1. Persons that play a go-between role between members of elite classes and ethnic subordinate classes are _________ _________.
    middleman minorities


  1. A key phrase in split-class theories regarding the relationship between the lower and higher classes is __________ _________.
    economic exploitation


  1. The creation of internal colonies of nonwhites in America that are dominated by whites is referred to as __________ _________.
    internal colonialism


  1. The process by which one nation controls the political and economic activities of another is _________.
    external colonialism




  1. __________ theories focus on the mobilization of power to control where in the class system ethnic groups are placed.


  1. __________ refers to the process by which non-family members help each other survive.
    reciprocal altruism


  1. The basic argument of sociobiology is that the unit of natural selection is the __________ rather than the individual.


  1. __________ theories focus on ethnic diversity as a product resulting from the adaptation of ethnic groups to discrimination.
    pluralist or pluralism


  1. __________ theories are useful in examining the consequences of discrimination for ethnic groups interested in becoming part of a host society.


  1. __________ theories emphasize social identities as part of a natural cognitive process of placing self and others in categories.

Chapter 04

White Ethnic Americans



Essay Questions

  1. Compare the factors that made Irish, Italians, and Jews identifiable targets of discrimination.

Answers will vary


  1. What was the role of the Catholic school system in facilitating the adjustment and adaptation of non-Protestants to American society?

Answers will vary


  1. Why would Catholics pose threats to the Protestant Anglo-Saxon core? Was religion or economics more important?

Answers will vary


  1. How did the migration of African Americans to the North and Midwest aggravate black-white tensions in America?

Answers will vary


  1. What negative beliefs are still assigned to each subpopulation of white ethnics in American society? Which subpopulation is subject to the most negative beliefs?

Answers will vary




True / False Questions

  1. As a response to their experiences with prejudice and discrimination, the Irish were less likely to discriminate against other ethnic subpopulations.


  1. Once southern Italians had immigrated, more educated northern Italians began to immigrate.


  1. The success of white ethnics to assimilate into the Anglo-Saxon core is often used to condemn other ethnics for not doing the same.


  1. Irish Americans are the third largest ethnic subpopulation, behind English and Italians.


  1. Southern Italians were often seen as a distinct “race” during their early years of immigration.


  1. Italian Americans are still subject to many lingering negative beliefs about them.


  1. The Catholic Irish invented the big-city political machines.



  1. By the turn of the century, the southern, Catholic Irish had begun to overcome the effects of prejudice and discrimination against them.


  1. Efforts were made during their immigration to portray the Irish as a distinct “race,” revealing biological differences from other white ethnics.


  1. The dramatic success of the Irish in local politics soon translated to success in national politics.


  1. John F. Kennedy was the first Irish-origin president in America.


  1. The Catholic school system was created as a way to resist the public schools’ heavy-handed efforts to “Americanize” the Irish.


  1. Today, Italian Americans are involved in the political arena approximately proportionate to their numbers in the general population.


  1. The Catholic school system immediately opened its doors to southern Italians when they had problems in the public schools.



  1. Today, Jews have very few negative beliefs directed at them.


  1. Sentiment against Jews in America rose during the Great Depression.


  1. Like most middleman minority ethnics, Jews have not been politically active in America.


  1. Proportionate to their numbers in the general population, Jewish Americans are overrepresented in Congress.


  1. Discrimination against Jews in America has largely been informal.


  1. Nowadays, Jews rarely have to face exclusion or quotas in clubs and fraternal organizations.


  1. Jews can still experience discrimination in the area in which they are most successful, higher education.


  1. Despite negative stereotypes about them, the Irish came to dominate political machines in many American cities.



  1. Many Irish immigrants perceived themselves as banished to America by the British.


  1. The assimilation of white ethnics into American society serves to create positive stereotypes for non-white ethnic groups


  1. Political machines prevented the upward mobility of Irish immigrants.


  1. The southern Irish were the first non-Protestant immigrants to enter the United States in the early 1800s.


  1. Catholic schools were important to the maintenance of ethnic identity among Catholic immigrants from Europe.


  1. Worker unions provided southern Italian immigrants with upward mobility.


  1. The Immigration Act of 1924 created an open-door policy for eastern and southern European immigrants.


  1. Sephardic Jews came to America to avoid massacre in Spain and Portugal.



  1. Compared to other ethnic groups in American society, whites and Asians are far more likely to be in higher income and prestige occupations.


  1. Jews are a distinct “race.”


  1. The exclusion of Jews from some areas in U.S. society has placed them in a “gilded ghetto.”


  1. The social, educational, and economic successes of Jews have shielded them from prejudice and discrimination in American society.



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Who were the first non-Protestant white immigrants to come to America in significant numbers?
    A.southern Irish
    B. southern Italians
    C. Scots
    D. Poles


  1. The first Irish-origin candidate for President of the United States was
    A.John F. Kennedy.
    B. Alfred E. Smith.
    C. Alfred Landon.
    D. Harry Truman.



  1. White ethnics reveal roughly the same occupational distribution, except for
    A.Irish Americans.
    B. Russian Americans.
    C. Polish Americans.
    D. Italian Americans.


  1. Which ethnic subpopulation has, at times in its history, been portrayed as “less than human”?
    A.Irish Americans
    B. African Americans
    C. Native Americans
    D. all of the above


  1. What did not cause the second wave of Irish immigration beginning in the 1830s?
    A.the potato famine of 1842
    B. the long-standing British persecution of Irish
    C. the encouragement of the British government
    D. the intense dislike of the Irish for their homeland


  1. The white ethnic population with the highest percentage of repatriation back to their homeland is
    A.Irish Americans.
    B. Italian Americans.
    C. Russian Jews.
    D. Polish Americans.


  1. The immigration of southern Italians began around
    B. 1890s.
    C. 1900s.
    D. 1860s.



  1. Irish Americans were most threatened by
    A.the migration of African Americans northward.
    B. the immigration of Poles.
    C. the immigration of Italians.
    D. all of the above.


  1. At the end of the Revolutionary War, approximately what percentage of the population was Irish?
    A.10 percent
    B. 5 percent
    C. 15 percent
    D. 20 percent


  1. For Irish immigrants, political machines were
    A.a means to exploit the Anglo-Saxon core.
    B. a means for eliminating negative stereotypes.
    C. a path to upward mobility.
    D. a means for creating organized crime.


  1. The Catholic school system enabled many Catholic immigrants from Europe to
    A.overcome discrimination against non-Protestants in the public schools.
    B. establish a Catholic enclave.
    C. avoid assimilation into U.S. society.
    D. none of the above


  1. The “Mafia” stereotype of Italians is most rooted in the stereotypical belief that
    A.Italians are clannish.
    B. Italians are criminals and deviants.
    C. Italians are Catholic.
    D. Italians are violent.



  1. The Immigration Act of 1924
    A.established intelligence test levels for European immigrants.
    B. limited immigration from eastern and southern Europe.
    C. created an open-door policy for European immigrants.
    D. limited northern European immigration.


  1. Irish Americans constitute about what percentage of the population?
    A.5 percent
    B. 12 percent
    C. 18 percent
    D. 28 percent


  1. Which ethnic subpopulation reveals a very similar percentage in higher status and prestige occupations as white ethnics?
    A.African Americans
    B. Hispanic Americans
    C. Asian Americans
    D. none of the above


  1. It was not until what period that Italian Americans made progress in national politics?
    B. 1920s
    C. 1930s
    D. 1950s


  1. The political machines helped which ethnic subpopulation?
    B. Jews
    C. Italians
    D. all of the above



  1. Of the ethnic populations below, who were the last to enter organized crime?
    B. Jews
    C. Italians
    D. Scots


  1. Italian Americans are still behind other white ethnics in
    A.rank-and-file positions.
    B. top positions in government.
    C. top positions in business.
    D. both b and c.


  1. Which Act disproportionately limited the immigration of Italians to America?
    A.the Immigration Act of 1924
    B. the Dawes Act
    C. the Immigration Law of 1965
    D. the Immigration Law of 1917


  1. The third wave of Jewish immigration occurred between the
    A.1880s to the 1920s.
    B. 1920s to the 1940s.
    C. 1940s to the 1960s.
    D. 1960s to the present.


  1. Jews in America constitute approximately what percentage of the world’s Jewish population?
    A.30 percent
    B. 20 percent
    C. 50 percent
    D. 60 percent



  1. Jews constitute what percentage of the American population?
    A.8 percent
    B. 16 percent
    C. 19 percent
    D. 2 percent


  1. The primary basis for identifying Jews as targets of discrimination is their
    A.distinctive facial features.
    B. distinctive rituals.
    C. high attendance rates at synagogues.
    D. shared sense of community.


  1. What most distinguished Jewish ethnics from other white ethnics?
    A.their nationalism
    B. their sense of a homeland
    C. their organization as a community in diverse environments
    D. their consensus over how to practice religion


  1. It was not until what period that Jews gained access to higher administrative positions of the federal government?
    B. 1920s
    C. 1930s
    D. 1940s


  1. Jews in America are underrepresented today in which of the following?
    B. the movie industry
    C. top positions in banking
    D. none of the above



  1. In what area did the law support for many decades the informal patterns of discrimination against Jews?
    A.club memberships
    B. education
    C. housing
    D. politics


  1. In what two occupational spheres are Jewish Americans underrepresented?
    A.lower and elite economic positions
    B. middle and upper-middle positions
    C. lower and middle economic positions
    D. upper-middle and elite economic positions



Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. The term __________ is a negative label for an Irish person that targets his/her religious background.


  1. The potato famine of the 1840s was a __________ factor for Irish immigration to the United States.


  1. Areas in cities where large numbers of Italian immigrants came to settle were known as _________.
    Little Italys


  1. Immigration from eastern and southern Europe was limited by the Immigration Act of _________.



  1. The first wave of Jewish immigrants in the 1640s to America was the __________ Jews.


  1. The first five books of the Bible are regarded as the __________ by Jews.


  1. The label __________ was used by northern Irish to separate themselves from the southern Irish in order to avoid persecution experienced by the southern Irish.


  1. The name for those laws requiring that businesses close on Sunday is _________.
    blue laws


  1. __________ Americans are overrepresented in the movie industry, academia, and Congress.




  1. The Catholic School system was started by __________ Americans.


  1. The first non-Protestant white immigrants to America were _________.
    southern Irish


  1. The third largest white ethnic subpopulation in the United States is the _________.


  1. The first major wave of Irish immigration to the United States occurred in the _________.



There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “American Ethnicity The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination 7Th Edition By Adalberto – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *