## Description

Business Statistics in Practice Bruce Bowerman 8th Edition – Test Bank

**Sample Questions**

**Instant Download With Answers**

Chapter 02 Test Bank – Static KEY

- A stem-and-leaf display is a graphical portrayal of a data set that shows the data set’s overall pattern of variation.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- The relative frequency is the frequency of a class divided by the total number of measurements.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Summarize quantitative data using frequency distributions, histograms, frequency polygons, and ogives.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- A bar chart is a graphic that can be used to depict qualitative data.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize qualitative data by using frequency distributions, bar charts, and pie charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- Stem-and-leaf displays and dot plots are useful for detecting outliers.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Construct and interpret dot plots.

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Dot Plots

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- A scatter plot can be used to identify outliers.

FALSE

A scatter plot is used to identify the relationship between two variables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-07 Examine the relationships between variables by using scatter plots.

Topic: Scatter Plots

- When looking at the shape of the distribution using a stem-and-leaf, a distribution is skewed to the right when the left tail is shorter than the right tail.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- When we wish to summarize the proportion (or fraction) of items in a class, we use the frequency distribution for each class.

FALSE

This is the definition for relative frequency. Frequency distribution shows actual counts of items in a class.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Summarize quantitative data using frequency distributions, histograms, frequency polygons, and ogives.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- When establishing the classes for a frequency table, it is generally agreed that the more classes you use the better your frequency table will be.

FALSE

Classes should be determined by the number of data measurements.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Summarize quantitative data using frequency distributions, histograms, frequency polygons, and ogives.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- The sample cumulative distribution function is nondecreasing.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

- A frequency table includes row and column percentages.

FALSE

Frequency tables include frequencies, relative frequency, and percent frequency. Cross-tabulation tables include row and column percentages.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize qualitative data by using frequency distributions, bar charts, and pie charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- When constructing any graphical display that utilizes categorical data, classes that have frequencies of 5 percent or less are usually combined together into a single category.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Construct and interpret Pareto charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- In a Pareto chart, the bar for the “Other” category should be placed to the far left of the chart.

FALSE

The bar to the far left of the Pareto chart will be the category with the highest frequency.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-02 Construct and interpret Pareto charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- In the first step of setting up a Pareto chart, a frequency table should be constructed of the defects (or categories) in decreasing order of frequency.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Construct and interpret Pareto charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- It is possible to create different interpretations of the same graphical display by simply using different captions.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-08 Recognize misleading graphs and charts.

Topic: Misleading Graphs and charts

- Beginning the vertical scale of a graph at a value different from zero can cause increases to look more dramatic.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-08 Recognize misleading graphs and charts.

Topic: Misleading Graphs and charts

- A runs plot is a form of scatter plot.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-07 Examine the relationships between variables by using scatter plots.

Topic: Scatter Plots

- The stem-and-leaf display is advantageous because it allows us to actually see the measurements in the data set.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- Splitting the stems refers to assigning the same stem to two or more rows of the stem-and-leaf display.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- When data are qualitative, the bars should never be separated by gaps.

FALSE

Bar graphs for qualitative data are displayed with a gap between each category.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize qualitative data by using frequency distributions, bar charts, and pie charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- Each stem of a stem-and-leaf display should be a single digit.

FALSE

Leaves on the stem-and-leaf are a single digit.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- Leaves on a stem-and-leaf display should be rearranged so that they are in increasing order from left to right.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- Gauges feature a single measure showing variation over time.

FALSE

Sparklines feature a single measure showing variation over time.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Data drill down is a form of data discovery.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Treemaps are used to display qualitative measures of performance.

FALSE

Treemaps help visualize two variables on quantitative measures.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Sparklines always need to be displayed with either their axes or coordinates.

FALSE

Sparklines seldom show their axes or coordinates.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- A bullet graph features a single measure as either a horizontal or vertical bar.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Key performance indicators are best represented by a data discovery method.

FALSE

KPIs are best represented by an analytic dashboard.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- A treemap graphic is a series of clustered rectangles.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Sparklines are line charts often embedded with the text where they are being discussed.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- An analytic dashboard presents both current and historical trends of a business’s key performance indicators.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- If space is an issue when presenting analytic dashboard graphics, gauges should be used most frequently.

FALSE

Gauges take up considerable space and are cluttered.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Which of the following is not a graphical tool for descriptive analytics (dashboards)?

- bullet graph
- sparkline
- scatter plot
- treemap
- gauge

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- A(n) _____________ is a graphical presentation of the current status and historical trends of a business’s key performance indicators.

- frequence distribution
- histogram
- Pareto chart
- dashboard

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- As a business owner, I have requested my staff to develop a set of dashboards that can be used by the public to show wait time at each of my four local coffee shops at peak times during the day and whether the time is short, medium, or long. Which of the following graphical displays would be the best choice?

- bullet graph
- sparkline
- treemap
- gauges

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Which of the following is the best analytic dashboard graphical method for visualizing hierarchical information?

- bullet graph
- sparkline
- treemap
- gauge

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- Which of the following dashboard graphical methods will show variation over time?

- bullet graph
- sparkline
- treemap
- gauge

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-09 Construct and interpret gauges, bullet graphs, treemaps, and sparklines.

Topic: Descriptive Analytics

- A(n) ______ is a graph of a cumulative distribution.

- histogram
- scatter plot
- ogive plot
- pie chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

- ________ can be used to study the relationship between two variables.
- Cross-tabulation tables
- Frequency tables
- Cumulative frequency distributions
- Dot plots

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-06 Examine the relationships between variables by using contingency tables.

Topic: Contingency Tables

- Row or column percentages can be found in

- frequency tables.
- relative frequency tables
- cross-tabulation tables.
- cumulative frequency tables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-06 Examine the relationships between variables by using contingency tables.

Topic: Contingency Tables

- All of the following are used to describe quantitative data except the ___________.

- histogram
- stem-and-leaf chart
- dot plot
- pie chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- An observation separated from the rest of the data is a(n) ___________.

- absolute extreme
- outlier
- mode
- quartile

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- Which of the following graphs is for qualitative data?
- histogram
- bar chart
- ogive plot
- stem-and-leaf

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- A plot of the values of two variables is a _____ plot.
- runs
- scatter
- dot
- ogive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-07 Examine the relationships between variables by using scatter plots.

Topic: Scatter Plots

- A Stem-and-leaf display is best used to ___________.

- provide a point estimate of the variability of the data set
- provide a point estimate of the central tendency of the data set
- display the shape of the distribution
- None of the other choices is correct.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- When grouping a large sample of measurements into classes, the ______________ is a better tool than the ___________.

- histogram, stem-and-leaf display
- box plot, histogram
- stem-and-leaf display, scatter plot
- scatter plot, box plot

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A _____________ displays the frequency of each group with qualitative data and a _____________ displays the frequency of each group with quantitative data.

- histogram, stem-and-leaf display
- bar chart, histogram
- scatter plot, bar chart
- stem-and-leaf, pie chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A ______________ shows the relationship between two variables.

- stem-and-leaf
- bar chart
- histogram
- scatter plot
- pie chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-07 Examine the relationships between variables by using scatter plots.

Topic: Scatter Plots

- A ______________ can be used to differentiate the “vital few” causes of quality problems from the “trivial many” causes of quality problems.

- histogram

- scatter plot
- Pareto chart
- ogive plot
- stem-and-leaf display

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Construct and interpret Pareto charts.

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- ______________ and _____________ are used to describe qualitative (categorical) data.

- Stem-and-leaf displays, scatter plots
- Scatter plots, histograms
- Box plots, bar charts
- Bar charts, pie charts
- Pie charts, histograms

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- Which one of the following graphical tools is used with quantitative data?

- bar chart
- histogram
- pie chart
- Pareto chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- When developing a frequency distribution, the class (group) intervals should be ___________.

- large
- small
- integer
- mutually exclusive
- equal

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- Which of the following graphical tools is not used to study the shapes of distributions?

- stem-and-leaf display
- scatter plot
- histogram
- dot plot

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

- All of the following are used to describe qualitative data except the ___________.

- bar chart
- pie chart
- histogram
- pareto chart

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Qualitative Data

- If there are 130 values in a data set, how many classes should be created for a frequency histogram?
- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- If there are 120 values in a data set, how many classes should be created for a frequency histogram?
- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- If there are 62 values in a data set, how many classes should be created for a frequency histogram?
- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- If there are 30 values in a data set, how many classes should be created for a frequency histogram?
- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A CFO is looking at what percentage of a company’s resources are spent on computing. He samples companies in the pharmaceutical industry and develops the following stem-and-leaf graph.

What is the approximate shape of the distribution of the data?

- normal
- skewed to the right
- skewed to the left
- bimodal
- uniform

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- A CFO is looking at what percentage of a company’s resources are spent on computing. He samples companies in the pharmaceutical industry and develops the following stem-and-leaf graph.

What is the smallest percentage spent on R&D?

- 5.9
- 5.6
- 5.2
- 5.02
- 50.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- A CFO is looking at what percentage of a company’s resources are spent on computing. He samples companies in the pharmaceutical industry and develops the following stem-and-leaf graph.

If you were creating a frequency histogram using these data, how many classes would you create?

- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

What would be the class length used in creating a frequency histogram?

- 1.4
- 8.3
- 1.2
- 1.7
- 0.9

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

What would be the first class interval for the frequency histogram?

- 5.2-6.5
- 5.2-6.0
- 5.0-6.0
- 5.2-6.6
- 5.2-6.4

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A local airport keeps track of the percentage of flights arriving within 15 minutes of their scheduled arrivals. The stem-and-leaf plot of the data for one year is below.

How many flights were used in this plot?

- 7
- 9
- 10
- 11
- 12

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 Construct and interpret stem-and-leaf displays.

Topic: Stem-and-Leaf Displays

- A local airport keeps track of the percentage of flights arriving within 15 minutes of their scheduled arrivals. The stem-and-leaf plot of the data for one year is below.

In developing a histogram of these data, how many classes would be used?

- 4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A local airport keeps track of the percentage of flights arriving within 15 minutes of their scheduled arrivals. The stem-and-leaf plot of the data for one year is below.

What would be the class length for creating the frequency histogram?

- 1.4
- 0.8
- 2.7
- 1.7
- 2.3

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A company collected the ages from a random sample of its middle managers, with the resulting frequency distribution shown below.

What would be the approximate shape of the relative frequency histogram?

- symmetrical
- uniform
- multiple peaks
- skewed to the left
- skewed to the right

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A company collected the ages from a random sample of its middle managers, with the resulting frequency distribution shown below.

What is the relative frequency for the largest interval?

- .132
- .226
- .231
- .283
- .288

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic: Graphically Summarizing Quantitative Data

- A company collected the ages from a random sample of its middle managers, with the resulting frequency distribution shown below.

What is the midpoint of the third class interval?

- 22.5
- 27.5
- 32.5
- 37.5
- 42.5

Chapter 04 Test Bank – Static KEY

- A contingency table is a tabular summary of probabilities concerning two sets of complementary events.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- An event is a collection of sample space outcomes.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-02 List the outcomes in a sample space and use the list to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Two events are independent if the probability of one event is influenced by whether or not the other event occurs.

FALSE

Independence of events means there is no influence.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Mutually exclusive events have a nonempty intersection.

FALSE

Mutually exclusive events do not intersect (have no sample spaces in common).

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability and Events

- A subjective probability is a probability assessment that is based on experience, intuitive judgment, or expertise.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- The probability of an event is the sum of the probabilities of the sample space outcomes that correspond to the event.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-02 List the outcomes in a sample space and use the list to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- If events A and B are mutually exclusive, then P(A|B) is always equal to zero.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

Topic: Mutually Exclusive Events

- If events A and B are independent, then P(A|B) is always equal to zero.

FALSE

Conditional probability is always greater than 0 when events are independent.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- If events A and B are mutually exclusive, then P(A∩B) is always equal to zero.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Events that have no sample space outcomes in common, and therefore cannot occur simultaneously, are referred to as independent events.

FALSE

This is a definition of mutually exclusive events.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- The method of assigning probabilities when all outcomes are equally likely to occur is called the classical method.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Bayes’ Theorem uses prior probabilities with additional information to compute posterior probabilities.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-05 Use Bayes’ Theorem to update prior probabilities to posterior probabilities.

Topic: Bayes Theorem

- Bayes’ Theorem is always based on two states of nature and three experimental outcomes.

FALSE

Bayes’ Theorem can have any number of states of nature and any number of experimental outcomes.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-05 Use Bayes’ Theorem to update prior probabilities to posterior probabilities.

Topic: Bayes Theorem

- A probability model is a mathematic representation of a random phenomenon.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- There are two types of probability distributions: discrete and binomial.

FALSE

The two types are discrete and continuous. Binomial is a type of discrete probability distribution.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- A random variable is a numerical value that is determined by the outcome of an experiment.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Two mutually exclusive events having positive probabilities are ______________ dependent.

- always
- sometimes
- never

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

Topic: Probability and Events

- A ___________________ is a measure of the chance that an uncertain event will occur.

- random experiment
- sample space
- probability
- complement
- population

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- A manager has just received the expense checks for six of her employees. She randomly distributes the checks to the six employees. What is the probability that exactly five of them will receive the correct checks (checks with the correct names)?

- 1
- 1/2
- 1/6
- 0
- 1/3

If five have received the correct check, then it follows that the sixth employee will receive the correct check. Thus, the probability that exactly five will receive the correct check is 0.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-02 List the outcomes in a sample space and use the list to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- In which of the following are the two events A and B always independent?

- A and B are mutually exclusive.
- The probability of event A is not influenced by the probability of event B.
- The intersection of A and B is zero.
- P(A|B) = P(A).
- The probability of event A is not influenced by the probability of event B, or P(A|B) = P(A).

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- If two events are independent, we can _____________ their probabilities to determine the intersection probability.

- divide
- add
- multiply
- subtract

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Events that have no sample space outcomes in common, and therefore cannot occur simultaneously, are ____________.

- independent
- mutually exclusive
- intersections
- unions

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Probability and Events

- If events A and B are independent, then the probability of simultaneous occurrence of event A and event B can be found with ____________.

- P(A)•P(B)
- P(A)•P(B|A)
- P(B)•P(A|B)
- All of these choices are correct.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- The set of all possible outcomes for an experiment is called a(n) ____________.

- sample space
- event
- experiment
- probability

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- A(n) ____________ is the probability that one event will occur given that we know that another event already has occurred.

- sample space outcome
- subjective probability
- complement of events
- long-run relative frequency
- conditional probability

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- The ___________ of two events X and Y is another event that consists of the sample space outcomes belonging to either event X or event Y or both events X and Y.

- complement
- union
- intersection
- conditional probability

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- If P(A) > 0 and P(B) > 0 and events A and B are independent, then ____________.

- P(A) = P(B)
- P(A|B) = P(A)
- P(A∩B) = 0
- P(A∩B) = P(A) P(BυA)

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- P(A υ B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A∩B) represents the formula for the ____________.

- conditional probability
- addition rule
- addition rule for two mutually exclusive events
- multiplication rule

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- A(n) _____________ is the set of all of the distinct possible outcomes of an experiment.

- sample space
- union
- intersection
- observation

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- The _____________ of an event is a number that measures the likelihood that an event will occur when an experiment is carried out.

- outcome
- probability
- intersection
- observation

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability and Events

- When the probability of one event is influenced by whether or not another event occurs, the events are said to be _____________.

- independent
- dependent
- mutually exclusive
- experimental

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- A process of observation that has an uncertain outcome is referred to as a(n) _____________.

- probability
- frequency
- conditional probability
- experiment

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- When the probability of one event is not influenced by whether or not another event occurs, the events are said to be _____________.

- independent
- dependent
- mutually exclusive
- experimental

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- A probability may be interpreted as a long-run _____________ frequency.

- observational
- relative
- experimental
- conditional

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- If events A and B are independent, then P(A|B) is equal to _____________.

- P(B)
- P(A∩B)
- P(A)
- P(A υ B)

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- The simultaneous occurrence of events A and B is represented by the notation _______________.

- A υ B
- A|B
- A∩B
- B|A

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- A(n) _______________ probability is a probability assessment that is based on experience, intuitive judgment, or expertise.

- experimental
- relative frequency
- objective
- subjective

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- A(n) ______________ is a collection of sample space outcomes.

- experiment
- event
- set
- probability

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Probabilities must be assigned to each sample space outcome so that the probabilities of all the sample space outcomes add up to _____________.

- 1
- between 0 and 1
- between -1 and 1
- 0

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- Probabilities must be assigned to sample space outcomes so that the probability assigned to each sample space outcome must be between ____________, inclusive.

- 0 and 100
- -100 and 100
- 0 and 1
- -1 and 1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- The __________ of event X consists of all sample space outcomes that do not correspond to the occurrence of event X.

- independence
- complement
- conditional probability
- dependence

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- The ___________ of two events A and B is the event that consists of the sample space outcomes belonging to both event A and event B.

- union
- intersection
- complement
- mutual exclusivity

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Some Elementary Probability Rules

- Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: consumer with an unlisted phone number and a consumer who does not drive.

- mutually exclusive
- not mutually exclusive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: unmarried person and a person with an employed spouse.

- mutually exclusive
- not mutually exclusive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: someone born in the United States and a US citizen.

- mutually exclusive
- not mutually exclusive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: voter who favors gun control and an unregistered voter.

- mutually exclusive
- not mutually exclusive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive:

someone with three sisters and someone with four siblings.

- mutually exclusive
- not mutually exclusive

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Consider a standard deck of 52 playing cards, a randomly selected card from the deck, and the following events: R = red, B = black, A = ace, N = nine, D = diamond, and C = club.

Are R and A mutually exclusive?

- Yes, mutually exclusive.
- No, not mutually exclusive.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Consider a standard deck of 52 playing cards, a randomly selected card from the deck, and the following events: R = red, B = black, A = ace, N = nine, D = diamond, and C = club.

Are R and C mutually exclusive?

- Yes, mutually exclusive.
- No, not mutually exclusive.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Consider a standard deck of 52 playing cards, a randomly selected card from the deck, and the following events: R = red, B = black, A = ace, N = nine, D = diamond, and C = club.

Are A and N mutually exclusive?

- Yes, mutually exclusive.
- No, not mutually exclusive.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

Are N and C mutually exclusive?

- Yes, mutually exclusive.
- No, not mutually exclusive.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

Are D and C mutually exclusive?

- Yes, mutually exclusive.
- No, not mutually exclusive.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 04-03 Use elementary probability rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- The probability model describing an experiment consists of

- sample space.

- probabilities of the sample space outcomes.
- sample space and probabilities of the sample space outcomes.
- independent events.
- random variables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 04-01 Define a probability, a sample space, and a probability model.

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- What is the probability of rolling a seven with a pair of fair dice?

- 6/36
- 3/36
- 1/36
- 8/36
- 7/36

Set up sample spaces: 36 total; 6 have combination adding to 6.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- What is the probability of rolling a value higher than eight with a pair of fair dice?

- 6/36
- 18/36
- 10/36
- 8/36
- 12/36

Set up sample spaces: 36 total; 10 have combination adding to more than 8.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- What is the probability that an even number appears on the toss of a die?

- 0.5
- 0.33
- 0.25
- 0.67
- 1.00

Set up sample spaces: 6 total; 2, 4, and 6 are even numbers.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- What is the probability that a king appears in drawing a single card from a deck of 52 cards?

- 4/13
- 1/13
- 1/52
- 1/12
- 2/13

Set up sample spaces: 52; 4 kings in a deck.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- If we consider the toss of four coins as an experiment, how many outcomes does the sample space consist of?

- 8
- 4
- 16
- 32
- 2

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-06 Use some elementary counting rules to compute probabilities.

Topic: Counting Rules

- What is the probability of at least one tail in the toss of three fair coins?

- 1/8
- 4/8
- 5/8
- 7/8
- 6/8

Set up sample spaces: 8 possibilities; only one has all heads; other 7 have at least one tail.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic: Probability, Sample Spaces, and Probability Models

- A lot contains 12 items, and 4 are defective. If three items are drawn at random from the lot, what is the probability they are not defective?

- 0.3333
- 0.2545
- 0.5000
- 0.2963
- 0.0370

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- A person is dealt 5 cards from a deck of 52 cards. What is the probability they are all clubs?

- 0.2500
- 0.0962
- 0.0769
- 0.0010
- 0.0005

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- A group has 12 men and 4 women. If 3 people are selected at random from the group, what is the probability that they are all men?

- 0.4219
- 0.5143
- 0.3929
- 0.0156
- 0.0045

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Container 1 has 8 items, 3 of which are defective. Container 2 has 5 items, 2 of which are defective. If one item is drawn from each container, what is the probability that both items are not defective?

- 0.3750
- 0.3846
- 0.1500
- 0.6154
- 0.2000

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Container 1 has 8 items, 3 of which are defective. Container 2 has 5 items, 2 of which are defective. If one item is drawn from each container, what is the probability that the item from Container 1 is defective and the item from Container 2 is not defective?

- 0.3846
- 0.2250
- 0.3750
- 0.6154
- 0.1500

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- Container 1 has 8 items, 3 of which are defective. Container 2 has 5 items, 2 of which are defective. If one item is drawn from each container, what is the probability that only one of the items is defective?

- 0.2250
- 0.3000
- 0.0250
- 0.4000
- 0.1500

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute conditional probabilities and assess independence.

Topic: Conditional Probability and Independence

- A coin is tossed 6 times. What is the probability that at least one head occurs?

- 63/64
- 1/64
- 1/36
- 5/6

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