Crime and Punishment A History of the Criminal Justice System 2nd International Editionby Mitchel P. Roth – Test Bank


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Crime and Punishment A History of the Criminal Justice System 2nd International Editionby Mitchel P. Roth – Test Bank

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  1. According to ecclestiacal law, the worst fate that could befall a member of the clergy was
  2. hanging
  3. fines
  4. excommunication*
  5. crucifixion


  1. In 1066
  2. Germanic mercenaries defeated the Vikings
  3. the Normans were defeated at the Battle of Hastings
  4. the Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons and conquered England*
  5. Alfred the Great united England


  1. Which of the following was not introduced to England by the Normans?
  2. the curfew
  3. the tithing*
  4. the jury system
  5. the feudal system


  1. All of the following were intergral parts of the legal process under the Anglo-Saxons prior to the Norman invasion except
  2. compurgatory oaths
  3. trial by battle*
  4. ordeal by water or fire
  5. the bier right


  1. At the Fourth Lateran Council
  2. the stage was set for teh curtailment of the ancient system of trial by ordeal*
  3. the clergy was given permission to participate in trials
  4. ordeals were replaced with oaths
  5. trial by battle was outlawed


  1. The earliest recorded Anglo Saxon laws were called
  2. codices
  3. dooms*
  4. tithings
  5. guilds



  1. In the days of decentralized administration and poor communications
  2. the hue and cry became an outdated procedure for capturing criminals
  3. England had an advanced penology system
  4. it was important that everyone could read
  5. the hue and cry procedure was the only effective method of apprehending a fugitive offender*


  1. The term “law” originated with the
  2. French
  3. Saxons
  4. Danes*
  5. Celts


  1. According to English law during the Middle Ages
  2. one could take sanctuary in a church after committing crimes such as treason and heresy
  3. an accused felon could take refuge in a church for 40 days*
  4. the church was considered off limits to felons
  5. any felon taking refuge in a church for any length of time had to supply his own food and drink from sources other than the church


  1. The Magna Carta was signed in
  2. 1285
  3. 1215*
  4. 1315
  5. 1066


  1. In the mid-1300s feudalism began to decline as a system
  2. because of the devastation caused by the Black Death*
  3. with the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
  4. because of the Crusades
  5. because of the rapid expansion of urban life


  1. Which of the following criminal justice professions originated in England prior to the Norman Invasion?
  2. coroner
  3. bailiff
  4. sheriff*
  5. constable


  1. The concept of extended kinship groups of blood relations is most closely asssociatd with the
  2. Normans
  3. Vikings
  4. Germanic tribes
  5. Celts


  1. Compurgators were
  2. early trial judges
  3. contestants in judicial duels
  4. criminals allowed to remain free until trial
  5. oath helpers


  1. Which felony was most rare in the Middle Ages?
  2. homicide
  3. rape
  4. arson
  5. theft


  1. The position of bailiff developed out of the
  2. Assize of Clarendon
  3. Statute of Winchester*
  4. Protestant Reformation
  5. Assize of Arms


  1. The Saxons came to Britain from what is now
  2. France
  3. Germany*
  4. Denmark
  5. Scotland


  1. What was the largest demographic unit in Anglo-Saxon England?
  2. shires*
  3. hundreds
  4. tithings
  5. witans


  1. Early Anglo-Saxon law was based on
  2. customs*
  3. precedents
  4. Roman law
  5. none of the above


  1. During the Renaissance the study of Roman Civil law enjoyed renewed popularity beginning in which country?
  2. England
  3. France
  4. Italy*
  5. Germany



  1. All of the following could select a champion to fight on their behalf in cases of trial by battle except
  2. women
  3. children
  4. priests
  5. non-Christian men and women*


  1. Separate church courts were introduced to England by
  2. Henry II
  3. William I*
  4. Henry VIII
  5. Richard Lionheart


  1. How many times could an individual claim “benefit of clergy?”
  2. it depended on whether an individual was a member of the clergy
  3. two
  4. three
  5. once*


  1. Which event rekindled anti-Catholicism in the 1600s?
  2. the English Civil War
  3. the Gunpowder Plot*
  4. the execution of William Wallace
  5. the impeachment of the pope for salacious behavior


  1. Which official was considered the “cornerstone of British law and order” by the 1360s?
  2. sheriff
  3. the Charley
  4. the justice of the peace*
  5. thief takers





  1. During the Anglo-Saxon period there was no distinction between felonies and misdemeanors. (T)


  1. The Magna Carta and the Fourth Lateran Council took place exactly one century apart. (F)


  1. Homicides were relatively rare in medieval England. (F)


  1. According to Anglo Saxon tradition trial by ordeal was usually considered the first resort for determining guilt or innocence. (F)


  1. Following the Norman Conquest, William I adopted a number of Anglo-Saxon criminal justice procedures. (T)






  1. The federal courts were created by the
  2. Bill of Rights
  3. Judiciary Act of 1789*
  4. Declaration of Independence
  5. U.S. Supreme Court


  1. Which step is considered one of the earliest attempts at crime control?
  2. riot control training
  3. the implementation of an identification system
  4. street lighting*
  5. the installation of “Centinel Boxes”


  1. The ruling in the case of Aymette vs. the State
  2. supported the right to bear arms
  3. supported the right to a jury trial
  4. made a distinction between weapons used for common defense and those that are not*
  5. led to the first handgun control act


  1. John Adams cited the work of which criminal justice reformer in his defense of soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial?
  2. John Colquhoun
  3. Cesare Beccaria*
  4. Henry Fielding
  5. Benjamin Rush


  1. America’s first vigilante organization appeared in
  2. South Carolina*
  3. Virginia
  4. Massachusetts
  5. North Carolina


  1. ”Tarleton’s Quarter” referred to
  2. the rescue of American prisoners by British troops
  3. the killing of prisoners by British troops*
  4. at attempt at reconciliation during the Revolution
  5. the treatment of British troops in the Revolutionary War



  1. Which prison reformer targeted the deplorable conditions of convict hulks and jails of Britain?
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. William Penn
  4. Thomas Eddy
  5. John Howard*


  1. Which city is considered the birthplace of the American penitentiary?
  2. Philadelphia*
  3. Newgate
  4. New York City
  5. Boston


  1. At the time of the American Revolution which category of confinement existed?
  2. debtor’s prisons
  3. jails
  4. houses of correction
  5. all of the above*
  6. both a and b


  1. Which event proved the first threat to the laws of the U.S. Constitution?
  2. the Boston Massacre
  3. the Whiskey Rebellion*
  4. the Boston Tea Party
  5. Bacon’s Rebellion


  1. Which individual is credited with creating the Bow Street Runners?
  2. John Fielding
  3. Henry Fielding*
  4. John Colquhoun
  5. Jonathan Wild


  1. Which explanation explains the rise of crime in the years before the American Revolution?
  2. rising wages
  3. increased religious zeal
  4. urban growth*
  5. the growing ethnic diversity of the colonies


  1. Following the Revolutionary War
  2. the American Army looted New York City
  3. the American Army served a brief interlude as peacekeeper in New York City*
  4. it was necessary to place New York City under martial law
  5. the night watch system proved an effective crime fighting tool


  1. The position of jailer in revolutionary America proved
  2. to be a lucrative one*
  3. to be the most despised position in criminal justice
  4. to be an important step toward reforming prison conditions
  5. none of the above


  1. Which institution is considered one of the first in the world to house exclusively juveniles?
  2. Walnut Street Jail
  3. Newgate Prison
  4. the Hospice of San Michele*
  5. the Mt. Holly workhouse


  1. The term “regulator” is most identified with
  2. early police in the countryside
  3. early vigilantes*
  4. members of the slave patrols
  5. early members of the legal profession


  1. According to historian Hiller B. Zobel, which trial should be remembered as “The Birth of American Justice?”
  2. the Zenger Trial
  3. the Boston Massacre Trial*
  4. the Salem Witchcraft Trial
  5. the Marbury Case


  1. According to historian Samuel Walker had a major impact on criminal           justice, speeding up the process of reform and accentuating the differences between            American and English law.
  2. the Seven Years War
  3. the Declaration of Independence
  4. the U.S. Constitution
  5. the American Revolution*


  1. In 1794 which state came the closest to eliminating the death penalty for all crimes except first-degree murder?
  2. Pennsylvania*
  3. Virginia
  4. New York
  5. Maryland


  1. During the Revolutionary era no city saw more more mob violence than this city…
  2. Charleston
  3. New York City
  4. Boston*
  5. Philadelphia


  1. This police reformer wrote Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis and helped create the Thames River Police.
  2. Robert Peel
  3. Patrick Colquhoun*
  4. Henry Fielding
  5. Benjamin Rush


  1. Following the death of William Penn
  2. Pennsylvania decreased its number of capital crimes
  3. Pennsylvania began to move away from England’s “sanguinary laws”
  4. new capital crimes were added to Pennsylvania’s penal code*
  5. penal reform accelerated in Pennsylvania


  1. Which individual introduced the word “penitentiary” to the penal lexicon?
  2. William Penn
  3. Benjamin Rush
  4. John Howard*
  5. William Penn


  1. Which activity is a good example of extralegal peacekeeping?
  2. rioting
  3. vigilantism*
  4. hanging
  5. dueling


  1. The majority of the members of the U.S. Constitutional Convention were
  2. lawyers*
  3. Whigs
  4. Tories or Loyalists
  5. from the middle and lower classes





  1. Rioting and mob violence were common throughout the revolutionary era. (T)


  1. A tradition developed in New England that tended to punish property crimes more severely than crimes of personal violence. (F)


  1. The U.S. Constitution established the Department of Justice. (F)


  1. Following the American Revolution colonists were eager for a national police force. (F)


  1. By the 1790s several states had abolished the death penalty. (F)





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