Experience History Interpreting America’s Past 8Th Edition By James West Davidson- Test Bank


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Experience History Interpreting America’s Past 8Th Edition By James West Davidson- Test Bank

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Chapter 02

Old Worlds, New Worlds 1400-1600



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 28)Changes in European society that caused the expansion of European peoples into the New World after 1450 included
    A. technological advances in seafaring and weaponry.
    B. a deflationary spiral that dried up sources of capital.
    C. political decentralization with a democratic philosophy.
    D. the rise of women.


  1. (p. 33)The Mundus Novus was named after ________ by a German mapmaker.
    A. Vespucci
    B. Columbus
    C. da Gama
    D. de León


  1. (p. 33)Columbus succeeded in reaching the Americas because
    A. he was one of the few Europeans who believed the world was round.
    B. he grossly underestimated the distance from Europe to the Indies.
    C. he convinced the Spanish monarchs to underwrite a fleet of the largest vessels of that day.
    D. the Spanish reconquista had failed, and Spain needed a different enterprise.


  1. (p. 28, 32, 40)By approximately 1625 (a little more than a century after Columbus’s discovery), all of the following were true EXCEPT that
    A. the Spanish empire stretched from Mexico south to near the tip of South America.
    B. the English had begun efforts to establish a permanent colony in North America.
    C. the Portuguese were sailing directly to China around the south tip of Africa.
    D. an international fishing community congregated annually off the Newfoundland coast.




  1. (p. 33)Columbus mistakenly labeled the Taino people “Indians,” believing that
    A. the natives of the Americas originally came from India rather than Siberia.
    B. he had reached the East Indies.
    C. he had reached the West Indies.
    D. he had reached India.


  1. (p. 33)To the continents of the Western Hemisphere, Europeans gave the name America, from a
    A. Latinized form of one of Columbus’s given names.
    B. Spanish honorary title given Columbus.
    C. Florentine geographer’s Latinized first name.
    D. version of the name of a Mesoamerican tribe.


  1. (p. 37)All of the following explain why Spain conquered the Americas so rapidly, EXCEPT
    A. the weakening of native peoples by exposure to European infections.
    B. the persistent Indian belief that the Spanish were “gods.”
    C. political disunity within American native empires.
    D. Spanish technological superiority in the form of ships and guns.


  1. (p. 33-37)What accounted most lastingly for the early and rapid success of the conquistadors against Native Americans?
    A. the military technology of the Spanish
    B. the infectious diseases brought by the Spanish
    C. the rigid political centralization of the Aztecs, which meant that to capture the emperor was to conquer the empire
    D. the bloody religious system of the Aztecs, which meant that the Spanish stress on Christian virtue won converts among Indian peasants


  1. (p. 37)The economic and social system of the Spanish empire rested on
    A. religion.
    B. spices.
    C. weaponry.
    D. slavery.




  1. (p. 43)What momentous event that occurred throughout Europe distracted England from pursuing empire in the 1500s?
    A. the Reformation
    B. the Revolution
    C. the Renaissance
    D. the Reconnaissance


  1. (p. 41)Martin Luther preached
    A. the infallibility of the Bible and the church.
    B. the need to rebel against unjust or immoral authority.
    C. for the rights of the individual and democratic rule.
    D. salvation by faith alone.


  1. (p. 42)John Calvin established a “holy commonwealth” that became a center for European Protestantism and later a model for English Puritans. Where was this Calvinist stronghold?
    A. Amsterdam
    B. Wittenberg
    C. Bristol
    D. Geneva


  1. (p. 43)King Henry VIII of England broke with the pope in establishing the Church of England and appointing himself its head. The Church of England
    A. quickly began promoting a reformist doctrine.
    B. remained essentially Catholic.
    C. allied itself with reformist Catholics Luther and Calvin.
    D. was soon dissolved, after which England returned to its Catholic religious teachings and rituals.


  1. (p. 42)John Calvin preached the
    A. free conscience and choice of the individual.
    B. calling of the Christian believer to pray with and follow the pope in Rome.
    C. calling of the Christian church to actively reshape the world.
    D. divine choosing of God’s saints for salvation by the clergy.




  1. (p. 44)The English model of conquest and slaughter did not begin in the Americas. The precedent was set in
    A. the Cape region at the southern tip of Africa.
    B. islands off the West African coast.
    C. Ireland.
    D. Iceland and Greenland.


  1. (p. 44)What was the precedent set by the English colonization of Ireland?
    A. that a nearby domain was fair game for conquest
    B. that Catholics had a perfect right in the name of the church to conquer Protestants
    C. that an inferior race could justifiably be brutally repressed
    D. that if the Spanish could attempt an attack on the English, the English could respond with an attack on the Irish


  1. (p. 43)Elizabeth I urged the colonization of Ireland because
    A. as a monarch, she feared that foreign powers would use that contentious island as a base for invading England.
    B. as a Protestant, she feared that radical Puritans might use that Catholic island as a base for religious rebellion.
    C. as a Catholic, she wanted to reconvert the Protestant Irish.
    D. as the daughter of Anne Boleyn, she needed respect and an enlarged realm.


  1. (p. 44)Richard Hakluyt argued that North America would be an ideal place to
    A. extend the influence of Catholicism.
    B. use as a base to search for a northwest passage.
    C. reform the criminal and enrich the poor.
    D. create light industry.


  1. (p. 44)The first English attempt to colonize the New World failed. The attempt was led by
    A. Gilbert.
    B. Fitzgerald.
    C. Raleigh.
    D. Hakluyt.




  1. (p. 46)In 1600, England’s settlements in the Americas included
    A. Roanoke.
    B. Jamestown.
    C. Newfoundland.
    D. None of these answers is correct.



Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. (p. 28)While most accounts begin with Spanish penetration of the Caribbean and Central America, this chapter begins with the second pathway across the North Atlantic, followed by seafarers from England, France, and Portugal to fish off the island of ________.


  1. (p. 31)The nation of ________ led the way in exploring beyond Europe’s known waters using the caravel ship.


  1. (p. 35-37)Hernán Cortés was the conquistador who conquered the great empire of the ________.


  1. (p. 37)By 1520, the Spanish plantations in the West Indies were being worked by ________ imported from Africa.


  1. (p. 37)The transfer of flora and fauna of the Americas on the one hand and those of Eurasia and Africa on the other is known to historians as the ________ exchange.




  1. (p. 28)Cabot was never heard from again after setting sail in 1498 on a search for a(n) ________ to Asia.
    northwest passage


  1. (p. 44)A precedent for subsequent English colonization in the New World occurred closer to home with a program to colonize ________ in order to control that threatening place.



Essay Questions

  1. Discuss conditions that encouraged early modern Europeans to undertake voyages of exploration and discovery.

Answers will vary


  1. How did Portuguese exploration prepare the way for the Spanish discovery of North America?

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  1. Compare and contrast Aztec society in the fifteenth century with that of early modern Europe.

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  1. How did Spain’s colonial empire influence the development of western Europe during the sixteenth century?

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  1. Characterize the conditions and changes in sixteenth-century Europe that contributed to the Protestant Reformation.

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  1. What primary factors accounted for the rivalry between England and Spain in the late sixteenth century?

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  1. What factor was most essential in encouraging early modern Europeans to undertake voyages of discovery in exploration?

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  1. Could the direction of discovery and colonization in the fifteenth and sixteenth century have been reversed—that is, could the Aztecs have discovered and colonized western Europe? Why or why not?

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  1. To what extent were the English adventurers and the Spanish conquistadors “brothers under the skin”? In what ways were the roles they played similar, from the point of view of the royal governments of England and Spain?

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  1. Consider the motives of early English promoters of colonization like Gilbert and Raleigh. To what extent were such men motivated by idealistic goals? To what extent by economic interests?

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  1. Consider this statement: “As the monarchs of stronger, more centralized nation-states took advantage of the recent advances in technology and trade, the temper of these vibrant, often chaotic times mixed a sense of crisis with a sense of possibility.” Explain why this blend of desperation and idealism made the newly discovered Americas so attractive to Europeans.

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  1. Compare and contrast the tenets of Luther and Calvin. Be specific in including the Catholic traditions and the need for reforms.

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  1. Describe the social divisions among the races. What role did religion play in the divisions within society? What was the role of class? How did the Europeans move up within society?

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  1. Describe the slave culture in America. How and why were Africans imported into the colonies?

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Chapter 04

Colonization and Conflict in the North 1600-1700



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 81-84)This chapter tells the story of French activities in North America to make the point that
    A. the English were relative latecomers to the colonizing business in North America.
    B. the Spanish and English were not the only European powers colonizing the Americas.
    C. while the French provide a model for exploitative commercial penetration of North America, the English in New England demonstrate that religion could be an equally powerful motivator.
    D. while the French gained a foothold especially through the work of the Jesuits, their settlers were few in contrast to the English Puritans who settled New England.


  1. (p. 80-81)Which of the following statements is NOT true of the French colonizing efforts in North America?
    A. They were aggressive early adventurers in the North.
    B. They targeted the St. Lawrence River valley for their first settlements.
    C. They were hampered because of relatively hostile relations with native tribes.
    D. The religious zeal of a renewed Catholicism spurred the colonizing efforts of the French.


  1. (p. 81)At one time or another all of the following were objectives of the French effort in North America, EXCEPT
    A. establishing a permanent settlement.
    B. the quest for profits through the fur trade.
    C. finding a place to resettle dissident French Protestants.
    D. converting the Indians to Catholicism.




  1. (p. 84-85)Which of the following was NOT a factor in inducing the migration of English Puritans to New England?
    A. a zeal to convert the Indians
    B. the perceived failure of the English government to purify society and the church
    C. political conflict
    D. economic uncertainty


  1. (p. 85)The Puritan belief that God was in control of history fueled a zeal to improve society. This belief is known as
    A. divine sovereign grace.
    B. the Protestant Reformation.
    C. the calling to conversion.
    D. predestination.


  1. (p. 85)The Puritan program for reforming England included all of the following EXCEPT
    A. purifying the church of England from remaining traces of Catholicism.
    B. separating church and state.
    C. improving the education of the clergy.
    D. limiting church participation to the godly.


  1. (p. 87)The “Mayflower Compact” of the Separatists was
    A. a basis for government devised without a legal basis to do so.
    B. an agreement to organize a colony, as provided in their original charter.
    C. a small subgroup that determined on shipboard that pastors would hold ultimate authority in the colony.
    D. a small, efficient floral garden intended to show that God’s creation in Eden was a model for society.




  1. (p. 87)The description of Massachusetts Bay Colony using the biblical metaphor of a “city upon a hill” relates to the Puritan founders’ idea that the colony should
    A. be separate from the world.
    B. be located on a readily defensible site.
    C. be a refuge for all religious dissenters.
    D. serve as an example to the world.


  1. (p. 87)Which of the following was NOT one of the ways that the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay differed from the Pilgrims of Plymouth?
    A. The Puritans felt a sense of mission to reform England.
    B. The Puritans were simpler, less educated folk.
    C. The Puritans remained within the established Church of England.
    D. The Puritans carried with them a Crown charter for their enterprise.


  1. (p. 88)In the early 1600s migrants to New England differed from those who went to the Chesapeake in that
    A. New England settlement was sponsored by individual proprietors.
    B. New England immigrants tended to be motivated by a desire for wealth.
    C. New Englanders immigrated in family groups.
    D. in the harsher climate of New England, new arrivals often succumbed to disease and death.


  1. (p. 89)What is true about New England settlements?
    A. Determined to create an alternative model of society, Puritans deliberately set out to establish communities that differed from the places they left behind.
    B. The central institution for maintaining stability and order was the church, a “little commonwealth” to which everyone must belong.
    C. Almost every adult male owned property, but few had the opportunity to get rich.
    D. The basis of local self-government was an elected county Board of Governors.




  1. (p. 89)In the early decades of New England settlement, new colonies in adjacent areas were often founded because of
    A. religious differences.
    B. overcrowding in the older towns.
    C. the opportunities of the fertile frontier lands.
    D. imperial ambitions.


  1. (p. 91)What was Anne Hutchinson’s heresy?
    A. She embraced controversial positions on doctrine and shared these ideas with others.
    B. She performed witchcraft against the minister, John Cotton.
    C. She professed herself to be a midwife.
    D. She allied herself with the Indians on Long Island.


  1. (p. 91)In 1638 the Bay Colony Government expelled Anne Hutchinson and her followers for sedition. Where did they initially settle after being expelled?
    A. Rhode Island
    B. Connecticut
    C. Long Island
    D. New Amsterdam


  1. (p. 90)What characteristic of the “inner world” of New Englanders offers a clue to explain the Salem witchcraft trials?
    A. They were a people who lashed out at women who were different.
    B. They were deeply insecure about their economic future.
    C. They were fascinated by wonders and believed in supernatural forces.
    D. They compensated for repressed sexual feelings by targeting women as scapegoats.


  1. (p. 93)In their contests with the settlers, New England Indian tribes suffered from the disadvantages of
    A. disease.
    B. disarmament.
    C. centralized authority of all tribes.
    D. lack of knowledge of the terrain.




  1. (p. 92-93)The native peoples of New England
    A. had little in common with practices and attitudes of the white settlers of the region.
    B. were alienated by vigorous Puritan attempts to convert them.
    C. suffered from the ravages of epidemic disease to the same extent as whites.
    D. clashed with settlers in periodic violent conflicts that threatened not only white survival but their own.


  1. (p. 94-95)The Dutch colony of New Netherland was marked by
    A. close control by the government in Holland.
    B. small but concentrated centers of population.
    C. financial prosperity due to exports of foodstuffs.
    D. great ethnic and religious diversity.


  1. (p. 95)How did New Netherland become New York?
    A. The Dutch sold it to the English.
    B. The Dutch abandoned it; the English then colonized it.
    C. The English in adjacent areas gradually absorbed the isolated Dutch settlements.
    D. It was taken by an English invading fleet.


  1. (p. 82)Which tribe of Indians actually gained strength as a result of their contacts with whites?
    A. Powhatans
    B. Mohawks
    C. Cherokees
    D. Iroquois


  1. (p. 82)The Iroquois League increased its power and autonomy through much of the 1700s for which of the following reasons?
    A. their inability to unify several tribes into a confederacy.
    B. their role as suppliers of weapons to white traders.
    C. their male-dominated culture, which glorified in a fierce warrior tradition.
    D. their success in destroying their ancient enemies, the Hurons.




  1. (p. 95)The first colonial endeavor of the Quaker sect focused on which colony that was temporarily split in two?
    A. Connecticut
    B. New Jersey
    C. Delaware
    D. Carolina


  1. (p. 96)Which of the following was NOT included in Penn’s vision for his colony?
    A. displacing the savage Indians
    B. providing a refuge for Quakers from England and elsewhere
    C. establishing a model society to reform the failings of Europe
    D. generating rental revenue for himself


  1. (p. 96)Which of the following was NOT a reason that Pennsylvania quickly prospered?
    A. Penn’s planning and publicity efforts
    B. Penn’s honest dealings with the Indians who thus posed no threat
    C. Parliament’s generous subsidy
    D. Pennsylvania’s favorable soil and climate


  1. (p. 96)William Penn and the Quakers differed from the Puritans of New England in their belief that
    A. the government should be based on equality and consent.
    B. the government should promote morality by passing laws.
    C. a model society could be created in America.
    D. the state should guarantee all inhabitants freedom of worship.


  1. (p. 96)Which of the following statements most accurately describes the settlement patterns of early Pennsylvania?
    A. Most people lived in cities clustered along the coastline.
    B. Like in New England, the town became the focal point of life.
    C. The country, with its dispersed farmsteads, became the dominant settlement pattern.
    D. Large plantations similar to Virginia’s were characteristic of Pennsylvania.




  1. (p. 96)Which of the following statements is an accurate description of life in Quaker Pennsylvania?
    A. New arrivals were required to serve as indentured servants for a period of 7 years.
    B. Penn’s colony was completely free of political strife.
    C. A representative assembly existed and guaranteed inhabitants the basic English civil liberties.
    D. Inhabitants experienced complete freedom of press.


  1. (p. 98)After the Glorious Revolution, English efforts to exercise closer control over the North American colonies
    A. extended merely to putting teeth into commercial regulations in order to maximize profits from colonial trade.
    B. continued to increase throughout the 1700s, eliciting growing American resistance.
    C. ended, as the new monarchy sought to consolidate its power at home.
    D. grew substantially but subtly, so that British rule was real though not apparent.


  1. (p. 99)By 1700, your text concludes, the North American colonies
    A. were centralizing political power in the office of the royal governor.
    B. were becoming permanent, firmly-rooted societies.
    C. enjoyed stable subsistence economies.
    D. had learned to accommodate to cultural differences in ethnicity and religion.


  1. (p. 98)Massachusetts became a royal colony headed by an appointed governor where
    A. voting rights were determined by property ownership.
    B. Catholicism was banned.
    C. the new Dominion of New England was headquartered.
    D. freed servants and women could vote.


  1. (p. 94)The “praying towns” were
    A. Puritan strongholds for religious freedom.
    B. Catholic missions along the Atlantic coastline.
    C. villages established exclusively for Christian Indians.
    D. centers of worship aimed at educating the Pilgrims in Indian culture.





Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. (p. 81)Driven by a quest for both furs and souls, the ________ respected Indian culture and in turn won Indian respect.


  1. (p. 84)The main corridor of French imperial penetration into North America was the ________ valley.
    St. Lawrence


  1. (p. 86)The “Pilgrims”—so-called because they migrated from England to Holland to America—in reality are best known as ________ for their views on the Church of England.


  1. (p. 86)The Pilgrims, before disembarking at Plymouth, signed the ________ as a self-instituted basis for government.
    Mayflower Compact


  1. (p. 91)________ became a founder of Rhode Island when his radically critical views of established religious practice got him banished from Massachusetts Bay.
    Roger Williams


  1. (p. 94)Puritan minister John Eliot oversaw a project to publish the scriptures in the ________ language using the Latin alphabet.




  1. (p. 96)By the early 1700s the city of ________ was becoming the commercial and cultural center of the British Empire in North America.


  1. (p. 98)Late in the 1600s, the English Parliament ousted the Stuart king and brought in William and Mary as monarchs who acknowledged Parliamentary rule. This episode is known as the ________.
    Glorious Revolution



Essay Questions

  1. Compare the French motives for colonizing North America with those of the English.

Answers will vary


  1. What were the principal religious beliefs of the Puritans?

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  1. What role did the Congregational church play in the life of New England villages?

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  1. What kinds of conflicts commonly arose among white settlers in seventeenth-century New England? Which were the most bitter and disruptive?

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  1. How did migrations to the Chesapeake and New England help to determine the initial character of these two colonial societies?

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  1. Describe the lives of women in early New England. How closely did they resemble the lives of women in the Chesapeake?

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  1. How did the Dutch settlements in New York differ from the New England settlements of the same period?

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  1. How did the pattern of settlement in Pennsylvania differ from that of New England?

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  1. Both religious and economic factors made it easier for the French than the English to coexist with Indian cultures. Discuss those factors and explain why you agree or disagree.

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  1. Why did Puritanism appeal to many people in early modern England?

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  1. Why didn’t New England develop a slave-based plantation economy similar to those in the colonial South?

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  1. Assess the relations between white settlers and Indians in the northern colonies. How do they compare with relations between those two groups in the colonial South?

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  1. Why did Quaker beliefs and customs challenge traditional English society in so many ways? Why did New England’s Puritans (who were, after all, devout reformers themselves) persecute Quakers?

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  1. How did the Iroquois nation gain strength from its contacts with white colonies?

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  1. Why were the colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania relatively diverse and tolerant at the end of the seventeenth century?

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  1. Describe the role of an average woman in New England. How did the Puritan dogma emancipate women?

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  1. Why were women singled out during the witchcraft trials?

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