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# Explorations Introduction to Astronomy 9Th Edition By Thomas – Test Bank

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Explorations Introduction to Astronomy 9Th Edition By Thomas – Test Bank

Sample Questions

An Introduction to Astronomy, 9e (Arny)

Chapter 2   The Rise of Astronomy

1) The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because

1. A) you are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).
2. B) you are farther from it when it rises (angular-size relation).
3. C) it’s an illusion from comparison to objects on the horizon.
4. D) it’s brighter when it rises.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy; Locating Objects in the Sky

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula); Observational astronomy

2) ________ was the first person to measure the circumference of Earth.

1. A) Ptolemy
2. B) Copernicus
3. C) Eratosthenes
4. D) Galileo
5. E) Aristarchus

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Historical: Shape and Size of Earth

3) When was it first known that Earth was spherical in shape?

1. A) It was always known to be spherical.
2. B) at the time of the Greeks
3. C) at the beginning of the Renaissance
4. D) only after Galileo used a telescope to study other planets
5. E) only recently within the last hundred years

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Historical: Shape and Size of Earth

4) What is the size of an object located at a distance of 1,000 meters and that has angular
size A = 4 degrees?

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

5) The angular size of an object increases as the distance to the observer increases.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

6) The angular size of the Sun as observed from Earth is about 0.5 degree.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula); Historical: Distances and Sizes of the Sun and Moon

7) The angular size of the Moon as observed from Earth is about 0.5 degree.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula); Historical: Distances and Sizes of the Sun and Moon

8) One observation supporting the idea of a spherical Earth is that ________.

1. A) the shape of Earth’s shadow on the Moon during an eclipse is circular
2. B) a traveler moving south will see stars they could not previously see
3. C) a ship moving away from the observer will move such that the hull is not seen, then the sails
4. D) All of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Historical: Shape and Size of Earth

9) The curved shape of Earth’s shadow during an eclipse was evidence for ________.

1. A) a flat, circular Earth
2. B) a spherical Earth
3. C) a spherical Moon
4. D) a flat, circular Moon
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Historical: Shape and Size of Earth

10) Which of the following is a contribution that Eratosthenes made to astronomy?

1. A) He determined the circumference of Earth.
2. B) He discovered epicycles.
3. C) He discovered his Three Laws (of Planetary Motion).
4. D) He was the first person known to have pointed a telescope at the sky.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Historical: Shape and Size of Earth

11) What is meant by the phrase “angular size”?

1. A) an object’s diameter
2. B) how big an object looks, expressed as an angle
3. C) the distance around an object
4. D) the angle between two circular objects

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

12) If you triple your distance from an object, what happens to its angular size?

1. A) It decreases by one half.
2. B) It stays the same.
3. C) It reduces to one third of what it was.
4. D) It increases by a factor of nine.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

13) The Sun and the Moon have an angular size of approximately ________.

1. A) 1 degree
2. B) 5 degrees
3. C) 0.5 degree
4. D) 23.5 degrees
5. E) 2.35 degrees

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

14) The similarity of the Sun’s and the Moon’s angular sizes allows ________ to occur.

1. A) tides
2. B) lunar phases
3. C) eclipses
4. D) sunspots
5. E) seasons

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

15) The apparent size of an object based on the amount of sky it covers is called its ________.

1. A) diameter
3. C) horizon
4. D) angular size
5. E) celestial extent

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

16) The Sun and the Moon have the same angular size. If the Sun is 400 times farther away from the Moon, the Sun must be ________ times the size of the Moon.

1. A) 400
2. B) 1/400
3. C) 1/4
4. D) 4
5. E) 4π

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula); Historical: Distances and Sizes of the Sun and Moon

17) One of two identical buildings is nearby; the other is twice as far away as the first. The angular size of the more distant building is ________ the nearby building’s angular size.

1. A) two times
2. B) four times
3. C) one half
4. D) one fourth
5. E) the same as

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula)

18) When the Moon is on the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. Why?

1. A) When it is on the horizon, it is closer to us.
2. B) This is an optical illusion.
3. C) The brightness of the Moon makes it seem larger.
4. D) Earth’s atmosphere acts like a lens, magnifying it.
5. E) Its angular size is larger on the horizon.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Diameter-distance Relation (a.k.a. the small angle formula); Historical: Distances and Sizes of the Sun and Moon

19) One observation that supported an Earth-centered solar system is ________.

2. B) the phases of the Moon
3. C) the lack of parallax in the stars
4. D) the shape of Earth’s shadow on the Moon
5. E) the phases of Venus

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Parallax

20) The shift of a star’s apparent position due to Earth’s motion around the Sun is called ________.

1. A) parallax
4. D) geocentricity
5. E) proper motion

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Parallax

21) The parallax shift of a nearby star would be ________ that of a more distant star.

1. A) greater than
2. B) less than
3. C) the same as
4. D) brighter than
5. E) faster than

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.01

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Subtopic:  Parallax

22) The paths of the planets in the sky are tilted with respect to the celestial equator by about

1. A) 5 degrees.
2. B) 23 degrees.
3. C) 45 degrees.
4. D) 90 degrees.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

23) One of the methods used to date supernova remnants (the remains of exploded stars) today is by using

1. A) the notebooks of Galileo.
2. B) the records of ancient Chinese, Japanese, and Korean astronomers.
3. C) the works of Ptolemy.
4. D) Kepler’s laws.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

24) Which of the following objects passes through the zodiac?

1. A) Sun
2. B) Planets
3. C) Earth and Moon
4. D) All of these choices are correct.
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy; Locating Objects in the Sky

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; The ecliptic

1. A) east to west motion of the Sun over many successive nights
2. B) east to west motion of the Moon relative to the stars over many successive nights
3. C) occasional east to west motion of the planets relative to the stars over many successive nights
4. D) occasional west to east motion of the planets relative to the stars over many successive nights

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

26) During retrograde motion, a planet moves from ________ to ________ relative to the stars.

1. A) east; west (moves westward)
2. B) west; east (moves eastward)

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

27) Retrograde motion is discernible by watching a planet over the course of

1. A) a few minutes.
2. B) many hours.
3. C) many nights.
4. D) many years.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

28) During the course of a single night, a planet that is moving in retrograde motion will move

1. A) east to west.
2. B) west to east.
3. C) not at all.
4. D) randomly about the sky.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

29) Imagine the much more massive Jupiter were to switch places with the less massive Mercury. Which of the following would accurately describe the outcome?

1. A) Jupiter would orbit the Sun in less time than it did before.
2. B) Jupiter would orbit the sun in more time than it did before.
3. C) Mercury would orbit the Sun in less time than it did before.
4. D) The orbital time for each of the planets would not change.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

30) The paths of the planets’ orbits lie in all different directions in the sky.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

31) The inability to observe parallax of stars contributed to the ancient Greek astronomers’ rejection of the idea that Earth revolves around the Sun.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Parallax; Heliocentric Models

32) The motion of the Sun with respect to the stars is retrograde, i.e., east to west relative to the stars.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

33) During retrograde motion, the planet Mars rises in the west and sets in the east.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

34) Parallax is the shift in a star’s apparent position due to Earth’s motion around the Sun.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Parallax; Heliocentric Models

35) The concept of the epicycle was introduced in the heliocentric model to explain the retrograde motion of the planets.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Motion of the planets; Epicycles

36) In the heliocentric model, the retrograde motion of the planets was explained as the consequence of the different orbital speeds of the planets, without the use of epicycles.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Heliocentric Models; Epicycles

37) Where on the celestial sphere would you look for the planets?

1. A) on the celestial equator
2. B) on the galactic equator
3. C) in the zodiac (near the ecliptic)
4. D) at the north celestial pole

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

38) If you see a bright “star” in the sky, how could you tell whether it is a star or a planet?

1. A) Planets are too dim to be seen without a telescope.
2. B) Planets are round; stars have five points.
3. C) Planets always appear right next to the Moon.
4. D) Look at it several days later—if it’s a planet, it will move across the background stars.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

39) The planets move ________ through the sky, relative to the background stars.

1. A) east to west
2. B) west to east
4. D) northeast to southwest
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

40) Of the earliest known planets, which exhibits retrograde motion?

1. A) only Mars
2. B) Mercury, Venus, and Mars
3. C) Mars and Mercury
4. D) All of these choices are correct.
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

41) What do we call it when a planet moves backward (east to west) through the stars?

2. B) the Zodiac
3. C) regression

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

42) Where will a planet in retrograde motion rise?

1. A) in the north
2. B) in the south
3. C) in the east (just like everything else in the sky)
4. D) in the west (the opposite of everything else in the sky)

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

43) The planets (other than Earth) known to ancient Western cultures were ________.

1. A) Mercury, Venus, and Mars
2. B) Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
3. C) Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
4. D) Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
5. E) Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

44) As the planets orbit the Sun, they are never far from the ________ on the celestial sphere.

1. A) ecliptic
2. B) celestial equator
3. C) horizon
4. D) celestial pole
5. E) meridian

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

45) The path of the planets through the sky is tipped 23.5 degrees from the ________.

1. A) celestial equator
2. B) ecliptic
3. C) zodiac
4. D) north celestial pole
5. E) the plane of the galaxy

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

46) The geocentric model was based on the observation that ________.

1. A) everything moves around Earth from east to west
2. B) the sphere was a divine shape
3. C) crystalline spheres rotated through the sky
4. D) the Sun and Moon were flawless spheres
5. E) Earth is motionless in space

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models

47) One phenomenon that the geocentric models struggled to explain was ________.

1. A) sunspots
2. B) the rotation of Earth
4. D) parallax
5. E) epicycles

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models

48) An epicycle was used in geocentric models to explain ________.

1. A) parallax
2. B) aurora
4. D) eclipses

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models

49) Islamic scholars ________.

1. A) studied and expanded upon older texts in astronomy
2. B) made detailed studies of the motions of the planets
3. C) influenced the naming of bright stars
4. D) developed algebra
5. E) All of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

50) Asian astronomers ________.

1. A) kept detailed records of unusual celestial events
2. B) devised ways to predict eclipses
3. C) recorded the existence of sunspots
4. D) All of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.02

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

51) Kepler’s Third, or harmonic, law states that the

1. A) period of an orbit cubed equals the semi-major axis squared.
2. B) semi-major axis of an orbit cubed equals the period squared.
3. C) planets move fastest when they are closest to the Sun.
4. D) semi-major axis of an orbit is inversely proportional to the period.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Kepler’s Laws

52) Copernicus’s heliocentric model failed to work as well as it might fail to predict the positions of planets because Copernicus insisted the orbits were

1. A) circular.
2. B) elliptical.
3. C) circular, mounted on epicycles.
4. D) hyperbolic.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Heliocentric Models

53) One of Tycho Brahe’s major contributions to astronomy was to prove that ________ was ________.

1. A) a supernova (exploding star); much farther away than the planets
2. B) a comet; outside Earth’s atmosphere
3. C) the Sun; the center of the solar system
4. D) both A and B
5. E) A, B, and C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models

54) The general heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus was appealing, and eventually became preferred, because

1. A) it explained why we do not observe stellar parallax.
2. B) it replaced Earth with the Sun as the center of the solar system.
3. C) it was more aesthetically pleasing than the complicated Ptolemaic model.
4. D) it made more accurate predictions than the Ptolemaic model.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models; Heliocentric Models

55) In ________ models, the Sun is assumed as the center of the solar system.

1. A) Geocentric
2. B) Anthropomorphic
3. C) Epicyclic
4. D) Heliocentric

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Heliocentric Models

56) Galileo was the first to observe the phases of ________.

1. A) the moon
2. B) Venus
3. C) Earth
4. D) the sun

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Galileo

57) In Copernicus’ model of the solar system, the planets orbited the ________ in ________ orbits.

1. A) Earth; circular
2. B) Sun; elliptical
3. C) Sun; circular
4. D) Earth; elliptical

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Heliocentric Models

58) ________ major contribution to astronomy is his extensive series of measurements of planetary positions.

1. A) Tycho Brahe’s
2. B) Galileo’s
3. C) Kepler’s
4. D) Copernicus’s

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

59) ________ used the extensive records of planetary positions measured by ________ to discover that the orbits of the planets are ________.

1. A) Tycho; Kepler; circular
2. B) Tycho; Kepler; elliptical
3. C) Kepler; Tycho; elliptical
4. D) Kepler; Galileo; elliptical

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

60) Kepler’s ________ law states that the orbits of planets are elliptical, with the Sun at one focus.

1. A) First
2. B) Second
3. C) Third
4. D) Fourth

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

61) From Kepler’s ________ law, we conclude that the planets do not move with constant speed.

1. A) First
2. B) Second
3. C) Third
4. D) Fourth

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

62) From Kepler’s ________ law, we conclude that Mars completes a full orbit much faster than Pluto.

1. A) First
2. B) Second
3. C) Third
4. D) Fourth

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

63) Observations indicate that it takes Saturn longer than Jupiter to complete one orbit about the Sun. This is in agreement with which of Kepler’s laws?

1. A) First
2. B) Second
3. C) Third
4. D) Fourth

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

64) The time between the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox is somewhat greater than the time between the autumnal equinox and the vernal equinox. This is a result of Kepler’s ________ law.

1. A) First
2. B) Second
3. C) Third
4. D) Fourth

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

65) Copernicus’ model was significantly better at predicting future positions of planets than Ptolemy’s.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Heliocentric Models

66) Galileo deduced many empirical laws of motion before Newton was even born.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Galileo

67) During the month of January, Earth goes through the point of closest approach to the Sun. Using Kepler’s Second law we can conclude that Earth moves faster in January than in July.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Kepler

68) In geocentric theories, Earth is assumed to be the center of the solar system.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Geocentric Models

69) The Sun is located at the center of Earth’s elliptical orbit.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Kepler

70) According to Kepler’s laws the Sun is located at one of the foci of Earth’s orbit.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Kepler

71) Copernicus was able to calculate the distances to the observed planets relative to Earth’s distance from the Sun.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets; Heliocentric Models

72) Which of the following is a contribution that Kepler made to astronomy?

1. A) He determined the size of Earth.
2. B) He discovered epicycles.
3. C) He discovered his Three laws (of Planetary Motion).
4. D) He discovered four moons (or satellites) of Jupiter.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Kepler’s Laws

73) Which of the following is a contribution that Galileo made to astronomy?

1. A) He determined the size of Earth.
2. B) He discovered epicycles.
3. C) He developed the first successful heliocentric theory.
4. D) He discovered four moons (or satellites) of Jupiter.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Galileo

74) Galileo’s observation of sunspots showed that ________.

1. A) the Sun was not a flawless sphere
2. B) Earth revolved around the Sun
3. C) planets moved along elliptical orbits around the Sun
4. D) the stars could change
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Galileo

75) Galileo’s observation of the satellites of Jupiter showed that ________.

1. A) there were objects that did not orbit Earth
2. B) planets orbited the Sun
3. C) the Moon was not a flawless sphere
4. D) nothing orbited Earth
5. E) None of these choices is correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Galileo

76) Tycho Brahe relied on the use of telescopes to record his accurate positions for the planets.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  02.03

Topic:  History of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Motion of the planets

Chapter 4   Light and Atoms

1) In materials like glass or water, the speed of light is ________.

1. A) reduced
2. B) increased
3. C) the same as in a vacuum
4. D) sometimes reduced and sometimes increased

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

2) A(n) ________ is a particle of light.

1. A) proton
2. B) photon
3. C) electron
4. D) neutron

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

3) If a photon’s frequency increases, its wavelength

1. A) will decrease.
2. B) will increase.
3. C) will not change.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

4) The lower the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the shorter its wavelength.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

5) What is light?

1. A) Light is radiant energy in the form of a stream of energy particles, called photons.
2. B) Light is radiant energy in the form of a wave of electromagnetic energy.
3. C) Light is radiant energy that can be mathematically treated as a wave or particle of energy.
4. D) None of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

6) Which of the following colors travels most quickly through glass or plastic?

1. A) blue
2. B) orange
3. C) yellow
4. D) red
5. E) green

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

7) How is light different from sound?

1. A) Light can be reflected from a surface; sound cannot.
2. B) Sound requires a medium to move through; light does not.
3. C) Light can be treated as a wave; sound cannot.
4. D) Sound of any frequency can be heard; only visible light can be seen.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

8) Assuming that light could curve around Earth, about how long would it take for one trip?

1. A) 1/7 second
2. B) 1 second
3. C) 7 seconds
4. D) 7 minutes

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Subtopic:  Properties of light

9) Is light a wave or a particle?

1. A) a wave
2. B) a particle
3. C) both a wave and a particle at the same time
4. D) neither a wave nor a particle
5. E) Sometimes it is a wave, other times it is a particle.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

10) In the wave model, light is ________.

1. A) a mix of electric and magnetic energy
2. B) a compression wave moving through the air
3. C) a packet of energy moving through space
4. D) the absence of dark
5. E) a ripple in space-time

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

11) In the particle model, light is ________.

1. A) a mix of electric and magnetic energy
2. B) a compression wave moving through the air
3. C) a packet of energy moving through space
4. D) the absence of dark
5. E) a ripple in space-time

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

12) For which of these scenarios is the particle model of light more convenient to use?

1. A) reflection of light from a mirror
2. B) refraction of light through a lens
3. C) diffraction of light through a slit
4. D) the Doppler shift of light
5. E) None of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

13) For which of these scenarios is the wave model of light more convenient to use?

1. A) diffraction of light through a slit
2. B) refraction of light through a lens
4. D) the Doppler shift of light
5. E) All of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

14) The visible spectrum is ________.

1. A) the range of wavelengths of light that human eyes can detect
2. B) the spectrum emitted by the Sun
3. C) a series of dark lines corresponding to electron transitions
4. D) a series of bright lines corresponding to electron transitions
5. E) the range of wavelengths visible to humans and animals on Earth

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

15) The wavelength of a wave describes ________.

1. A) the distance between two successive peaks in a wave
2. B) the distance between a peak and the nearest trough
3. C) the distance a wave can travel before being absorbed
4. D) the distance from one end of a laser beam to the other
5. E) the distance a wave will travel after being emitted

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

16) Which of the following colors has the shortest wavelength?

1. A) red
2. B) yellow
3. C) green
4. D) blue
5. E) violet

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

17) Visible light coming from the Sun is a combination of all colors called ________ light.

1. A) white
2. B) yellow
3. C) ultraviolet
4. D) spectral
5. E) visible

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

18) The mixing of light of all visible colors results in ________ light.

1. A) white
2. B) brown
3. C) Sun
4. D) spectral
5. E) visible

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

19) The mixing of paints of all colors results in ________-colored paint.

1. A) white
2. B) brown
3. C) black
4. D) yellow-white
5. E) rainbow

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

20) What is the relationship between wavelength (λ) and frequency (f)? (“c” is the speed of light.)

1. A) λf = c
2. B) λ/f = c
3. C) f/λ = c
4. D) λc = f

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

21) The frequency of a wave describes ________.

1. A) the number of wave crests that pass a given point in 1 second
2. B) the speed at which a wave crest passes a given point
3. C) the distance between two successive peaks in a wave
4. D) the time it takes for two crests to pass a given point

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Properties of light

22) If the frequency of a given wave is decreased by a factor of four, how will its wavelength change?

1. A) The wavelength will decrease by a factor of four.
2. B) The wavelength will increase by a factor of four.
3. C) The wavelength will remain unchanged.
4. D) The change in wavelength is determined by the medium through which the wave is traveling.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light

23) What is the approximate wavelength of red light?

1. A) 5 m
2. B) 7 cm
3. C) 400 nm
4. D) 700 nm

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.01

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

24) ________ range in wavelength from millimeters to hundreds of meters.

1. A) X-rays
2. B) Gamma rays
3. C) Ultraviolet waves
4. D) Visible light waves

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

25) Which of the following statements is true?

1. A) X-rays have higher energy, hence they move faster than visible light.
2. B) X-rays have higher energy, but still they move slower than visible light.
3. C) Even though X-rays have higher energy, they move with the same speed as that of visible light.
4. D) None of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light; Electromagnetic spectrum

26) Which kind of electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength that is about the size of a person?

1. A) X-ray
2. B) ultraviolet
3. C) visible
4. D) infrared

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

27) Adam’s toy gun emits blue light, Sue’s emits red light, Bonnie’s emits infrared light, and James’s emits ultraviolet light. Which gun produces the most energetic light?

2. B) Sue
3. C) Bonnie
4. D) James
5. E) All of the toy guns have the same energy.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

28) Which of the following correctly lists the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in the correct order from lowest to highest energy.

1. A) gamma rays, infrared, ultraviolet, radio waves, visible
2. B) radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma rays
3. C) infrared, ultraviolet, radio waves, gamma rays, visible
4. D) radio waves, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, gamma rays
5. E) gamma rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio waves

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

29) A photon of blue light has ________ a photon of red light.

1. A) more energy than
2. B) the same energy as
3. C) less energy than

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light; Electromagnetic spectrum

30) A night vision camera

1. A) is just much more sensitive to visible light than your eyes.
2. B) uses a detector sensitive to infrared light, so you can see objects that are warmer than their surroundings.
3. C) can only detect green photons, which reflect well in the dark, but which our eyes have trouble seeing.
4. D) uses a detector sensitive to X-ray light, so you can see through the dark.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

31) In space, X-rays travel faster than radio waves.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Properties of light; Electromagnetic spectrum

32) Electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths are collectively known as ________.

1. A) the electromagnetic spectrum
2. B) the visible spectrum
3. C) white light
4. D) a continuous spectrum

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

33) Compared to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, visible light is ________.

1. A) a small fraction of the possible wavelengths of light
2. B) the most energetic
3. C) the least energetic
4. D) the fastest moving
5. E) the most valuable to astronomers

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

34) A very energetic event like a supernova would emit mostly ________ light.

1. A) X-ray
2. B) visible
3. C) infrared
5. E) white

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

35) Of the following objects, which will emit mostly infrared light?

1. A) a cup of hot coffee
2. B) an LED (Light-Emitting Diode)
3. C) a star like our Sun
4. D) a red laser beam

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

36) The warmth you feel when you put your hand in a sunbeam is due to which part of the electromagnetic spectrum?

2. B) infrared light waves
3. C) ultraviolet waves
4. D) X-ray
5. E) gamma ray

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

37) Ultraviolet light has wavelengths that are ________ visible wavelengths.

1. A) longer than
2. B) shorter than
3. C) faster than
4. D) slower than
5. E) the same energy as

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

38) The energy of an ultraviolet photon is ________ a photon in the visible part of the spectrum.

1. A) higher than
2. B) lower than
3. C) longer than
4. D) shorter than
5. E) faster than

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

39) The energy of a radio photon is ________ a photon in the visible part of the spectrum.

1. A) higher than
2. B) lower than
3. C) longer than
4. D) shorter than
5. E) faster than

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

40) Radio waves have wavelengths that are ________ visible wavelengths.

1. A) longer than
2. B) shorter than
3. C) faster than
4. D) slower than
5. E) the same energy as

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

41) The electromagnetic waves with the highest energy are ________.

1. A) gamma rays
2. B) X-rays
3. C) ultraviolet light
4. D) visible light
5. E) microwaves

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

42) A significant source of gamma rays is ________.

1. A) electrons moving in Jupiter’s electric field
2. B) a supernova explosion
3. C) the collision of two black holes
4. D) a thermonuclear explosion
5. E) halogen lamps

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

43) List these electromagnetic radiations from short to long wavelengths.

1. A) gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio waves
2. B) radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays
3. C) gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, radio waves
4. D) radio waves, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, X-rays, gamma rays

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

44) List these electromagnetic radiations from lowest to highest energy.

1. A) gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio waves
2. B) radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays
3. C) gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, radio waves
4. D) radio waves, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, X-rays, gamma rays

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

45) As the wavelength of light increases, its energy ________.

1. A) increases
2. B) decreases
3. C) remains constant
4. D) moves more quickly
5. E) moves more slowly

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

46) As the frequency of light increases, its energy ________.

1. A) increases
2. B) decreases
3. C) remains constant
4. D) moves more quickly
5. E) moves more slowly

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

47) Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum would we use to study the relatively cool dust of interstellar space?

2. B) infrared light
3. C) visible light
4. D) ultraviolet light
5. E) gamma rays

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.02

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum

48) Star A is blue, Star B is yellow, and Star C is red. Which one of these is the hottest star?

1. A) star A
2. B) star B
3. C) star C
4. D) From color, temperature cannot be predicted.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

49) Which of the following emits a spectrum very close to a blackbody spectrum?

1. A) a neon light
2. B) an interstellar cloud
3. C) the Sun

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; Temperature and radiation

50) Which one of the following is an example of a blackbody that you see in everyday life?

1. A) a neon light
2. B) a stove burner
3. C) a fluorescent light
4. D) a laser pointer

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; Temperature and radiation

51) An atom consists of

1. A) electrons in a nucleus orbited by protons.
2. B) negatively charged protons in a nucleus orbited by positively charged electrons.
3. C) positively charged protons in a nucleus orbited by negatively charged neutrons.
4. D) None of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms; Language of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Spectroscopy; Elementary particles (quarks, atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons)

52) Wien’s law allows astronomers to measure what property of a star?

1. A) the surface temperature of the star
2. B) the chemical composition of the star
3. C) the distance to the star
4. D) All of these choices are correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

53) As a solid is heated (from a low to a high temperature) the radiated light will move through what sequence of colors?

1. A) red, yellow, blue
2. B) blue, yellow, red
3. C) yellow, red, blue
4. D) blue, red, yellow
5. E) It depends on what solid is being heated.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

54) ________ attraction holds the electron in orbit around the nucleus of the hydrogen atom.

1. A) Gravitational
2. B) Electrical
3. C) Centrifugal
4. D) Nuclear

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Language of Astronomy

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Elementary particles (quarks, atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons)

55) In the Orion constellation are stars Rigel, a blue supergiant, and Betelgeuse, a red supergiant. Which star has a greater surface temperature?

1. A) Rigel
2. B) Betelgeuse
3. C) They have the same surface temperature.
4. D) There is not enough information to tell.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

56) A temperature of 0 Kelvin means there is essentially no motion at the atomic level.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

57) A piece of iron heated to 200 degrees Celsius has twice as much internal energy as a piece of iron at 100 degrees Celsius.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Subtopic:  Electromagnetic spectrum; The Kelvin temperature scale; Temperature and radiation

58) A continuous blackbody spectrum provides information about the surface temperature of the object.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section:  04.03

Topic:  Light and Atoms

Bloom’s:  2. Understand