Foundations of Social Policy Social Justice in Human Perspective 4th Edition by Amanda Smith Barusch – Test Bank


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Foundations of Social Policy Social Justice in Human Perspective 4th Edition by Amanda Smith Barusch – Test Bank

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  1. The “neo-conservative” approach to government is most characteristic of
  2. The Republican Party.
  3. The Democratic Party.
  4. The Green Party.
  5. All of these


ANS: A                        PG: 26             EPAS: 2.1.9a


  1. Federal grant-in-aid programs
  2. are in direct violation of the Constitution.
  3. allow the federal government to extend its authority over social programs.
  4. do not require state participation.


ANS: B                        PG: 29             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. A “mark-up” session is held
  2. to draft a bill for submission.
  3. to determine whether there are enough votes to overturn a presidential veto.
  4. after a committee has held hearings on a bill.
  5. to bring together advocates and legislators to review a bill.


ANS: C                        PG: 31             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Filibusters:
  2. occur only in the House of Representatives.
  3. can be held in either the House or the Senate.
  4. occur only in the Senate.
  5. can be ended by a majority vote.


ANS: C                        PG: 31-32        EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. The Speaker of the House can influence a bill’s vote by
  2. holding a filibuster.
  3. deciding which committee will hear the bill.
  4. invoking “cloture” to end debate.
  5. A and C


ANS: B                        PG: 31             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Which perspective on social justice is illustrated by the progressive income tax?
  2. Libertarian
  3. Utilitarian Liberal
  4. Oligarchy
  5. Socialism


ANS: B                        PG: 43             EPAS: 2.1.9a




  1. The Executive Branch creates policy when it
  2. provides benefits.
  3. taxes income.
  4. spends appropriations.
  5. issues regulations.


ANS: D                        PG: 37             EPAS: 2.1.8a


  1. In 2010, the largest single item in the federal budget was:


  1. Social Security
  2. Defense Spending
  3. Medicare
  4. Interest on the national debt


ANS: B               PG: 34             EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of federal expenditures since 1945?
  2. The overall federal budget has grown.
  3. Education spending has taken a larger share of the federal budget.
  4. Social Security expenditures have grown.
  5. Expenditures for National Defense have taken a smaller share of the federal budget.


ANS: B                        PG: 34-35        EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. Mary works for a child welfare agency. She was opposed to the privatization of foster care services because she felt it was too difficult to define quality in this type of care. Which of the following conditions does she believe is missing from the foster care market?
    1. Assessable product
    2. Informed & able consumer
    3. Access to diverse providers
    4. All of these


ANS: A                        PG: 40-41        EPAS: 2.1.4a


  1. In the U.S., regressive taxes include (mark all that apply)
  2. state income tax.
  3. sales tax.
  4. payroll tax.
  5. inheritance tax.
  6. capital gains tax.


ANS: B&C       PG: 42                         EPAS: 2.1.5b



  1. During the latter half of the twentieth century, what sources of federal tax revenues changed? (mark all that apply)
  2. Individual income taxes became a higher proportion of federal revenues.
  3. Corporate taxes became a smaller proportion of federal revenues.
  4. The proportion of federal revenues drawn from payroll taxes increased.
  5. Sales taxes remained a significant source of federal revenues.


ANS: B&C       PG: 48             EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. The primary source of revenues to local governments is
  2. property tax.
  3. income tax.
  4. fines and fees.


ANS: A                        PG: 47             EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. The annual “Tax Expenditure Budget” outlines
  2. how tax revenues are spent.
  3. the annual costs of tax deductions and exemptions.
  4. the projected impact of proposed tax changes.
  5. All of the above


ANS: B                        PG: 49             EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. Tax deductions and exemptions pose an equity problem because
  2. they are complex to administer.
  3. they offer greater benefits to affluent taxpayers than to the poor.
  4. they are similar to tax credits.


ANS: B                        PG: 49             EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. For federal income tax purposes, a taxpayer’s marginal tax rate is
  2. the proportion of total income that is subject to tax.
  3. the rate applied to income in the taxpayer’s highest tax bracket.
  4. the amount of tax paid on the first $15,000 in taxable income.
  5. the tax rate applied to income derived from margin accounts.


ANS: B                        PG: 44             EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. Federal judges can be removed from office through a process called
  2. impeachment.
  3. termination.
  4. election.


ANS: A                        PG: 38-39        EPAS: 2.1.5b



  1. The federal rule-making process is governed by the
  2. U.S. Constitution.
  3. Administrative Procedures Act.
  4. Social Security Act.
  5. U.S. Regulatory Act.


ANS: B                        PG: 37             EPAS: 2.1.8a


  1. The goal of grassroots tax protests is generally
  2. to lower income tax rates.
  3. to eliminate local sales taxes.
  4. to reduce property taxes.
  5. to increase the progressivity of local tax structures.


ANS: C                        PG: 48             EPAS: 2.1.5a




  1. At present nearly half the world’s population lives under democratic rule.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: T                        PG: 25             EPAS: 2.1.4


  1. No bill can become federal law until it has received majority votes in both the House and the Senate.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: T                        PG: 32             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. A bill pertaining to social programs must originate in the House of Representatives.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: F             PG: 30-32        EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Health care spending is the largest category in the U.S. budget.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: F             PG: 33-35        EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. In the United States, mandatory spending is a much smaller part of the budget than is discretionary spending.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: F             PG: 33             EPAS: 2.1.7b



  1. The General Accounting Office (USGAO) helps the president prepare the budget.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: F                                     PG: 32                         EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. The U.S. has had a federal income tax ever since it was founded.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: F                                     PG: 45                         EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. Establishment of the TSA is an example of reverse contracting.

T:   True

F:   False


ANS: T                                                PG: 40                         EPAS: 2.1.5b




  1. Governance in the U.S. is shared among three levels of government. List these (short answer):



ANS: Federal, State, Local          PG: 28                         EPAS: 2.1.5b



  1. Describe what is meant by the term “grant-in-aid,” and give an example of such a grant.


ANS: Possible answer: A grant-in-aid is a method the federal government can use to expand social programs. The federal government offers money to states on the condition that they abide by federal regulations governing the programs. Medicaid is one example, as is TANF.


PG: 29                            EPAS: 2.1.5b



  1. How do tax deductions and tax credits differ? Give one example of a tax credit.


ANS: Possible answer: A tax deduction reduces the amount of taxes a person owes, but it cannot result in a refund. A tax credit (for example, the Earned Income Tax Credit) can reduce the amount of tax owed, and it can also result in a refund.


PG: 44-45                       EPAS: 2.1.7b




  1. What does the term “privatization” mean? Give two examples of privatization in the United States.


ANS: Possible answer: The term “privatization” refers to the private financing, production, development, and/or distribution of public assets or services. For example: the multistate movement to employ private managing prisons; when basic city services such as garbage collection and ambulance services are provided through contracts with local companies; when state and local governments employ private-sector organizations to deliver services, etc.


PG: 39-41                    EPAS: 2.1.5b





Multiple Choice


  1. When HIV/AIDS initially was diagnosed in the United States, most people believed they would never be affected or afflicted by the disease. Which of de Swaan’s conditions is not met under these circumstances?
    1. “External effects” are not recognized
    2. “Individual remedies” are effective
    3. Adversity must have “uncertainty of moment and magnitude”


ANS: A               PG: 88             EPAS: 2.1.8a


  1. What did the originally formulated U.S. Social Security Act not include? (mark all that apply)
  2. Survivor’s insurance
  3. Medical insurance
  4. Disability coverage
  5. Public assistance programs
  6. Health and social service programs


ANS: A, B, C      PG: 93             EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. Europe’s first Social Security program was established in:
  2. England.
  3. France.
  4. Germany.
  5. Russia.


ANS: C               PG: 95             EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. Social Security programs in Europe served a “state-building” function by:
  2. converting wages into a property interest in government.
  3. creating the need for administrative structures and personnel.
  4. making workers more loyal to the government.
  5. All of these.


ANS: D               PG: 95             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Prior to passage of the Social Security Act, U.S. workers (mark all that apply):
  2. had no way to provide for their retirement.
  3. could rely on their savings in retirement.
  4. could purchase disability and medical insurance from private companies.
  5. relied primarily on benevolent societies for support in old age.


ANS: B, C           PG: 96             EPAS: 2.1.5b




  1. Townsend Clubs were established to:
  2. promote the use of taxes to provide guaranteed income in old age.
  3. encourage passage of health insurance for the elderly.
  4. support Roosevelt’s proposal for social security.
  5. raise public awareness of the needs of the elderly.


ANS: A               PG: 97             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. During Roosevelt’s second term as president:
  2. the Social Security Act was not changed.
  3. Social Security taxes were raised.
  4. Social Security benefits were extended to dependents and survivors.
  5. farm workers were added to the Social Security Program.


ANS: C               PG: 98             EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. In the context of the Social Security program, the term “equity” means:
  2. providing a fair return for workers’ investments in the program.
  3. ensuring that low-income seniors have sufficient retirement income.
  4. ensuring that benefits are managed efficiently.
  5. All of the above


ANS: A               PG: 100           EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Funding for Social Security Retirement Benefits comes from:
  2. the General Fund.
  3. the payroll tax.
  4. the income tax.


ANS: B               PG: 101           EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. In Social Security policy debates, the term “privatization” refers to:
  2. investing Social Security funds in the private capital market.
  3. allowing individuals to decide whether or not they will participate in the program.
  4. selecting private investors to manage the investment of reserves in the Social Security trust funds.


ANS: A                        PG: 102           EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. A woman who earns substantially less than her husband is better off claiming benefits as his dependent than on the basis of her own salary history. This violates the principle of:
  2. Adequacy
  3. Equity
  4. Neither of these


ANS: B                        PG: 100; 106-107        EPAS: 2.1.4a



  1. Which of the following alternatives for restoring the solvency of OASI was NOT proposed in the 2010 report by the Senate Committee on Aging:
  2. Increasing payroll taxes
  3. Eliminating the wage cap on the FICA tax
  4. Raising the retirement age
  5. Privatizing the program
  6. Investing the trust fund for greater returns


ANS: D               PG: 104           EPAS: 2.1.9a


  1. Under “earnings sharing”:
  2. a woman and her husband would receive equal credit for earnings from any source.
  3. a widow would receive credit for earnings of her husband prior to the marriage.
  4. a surviving child would receive credit for earnings of both parents.
  5. All of these


ANS: A               PG: 107           EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Funding for the states’ contributions to unemployment insurance comes from:
  2. the Social Security payroll tax.
  3. fees charged for business licenses.
  4. a state tax on company payrolls.
  5. each state’s General Fund.


ANS: C               PG: 108           EPAS: 2.1.4a


  1. Disability insurance is financed through:
  2. general revenues.
  3. the Social Security payroll tax.
  4. a state tax on company payrolls.
  5. state general revenues.


ANS: B               PG: 109           EPAS: 2.1.5


  1. Under current law, individuals who are disabled by virtue of alcohol addiction:
  2. may receive Social Security disability benefits through a representative payee.
  3. must be in treatment in order to receive Social Security Disability benefits.
  4. may not receive Social Security disability benefits.
  5. A and B


ANS:  C              PG: 110           EPAS: 2.1.5a


  1. In 1964, opposition to Medicare came from (mark all that apply):
  2. business interests.
  3. physicians.
  4. labor unions.
  5. the Truman Administration.


ANS: A, B          PG: 112           EPAS: 2.1.4a




  1. The 1996 passage of PRWORA (mark all that apply):
  2. abolished Aid to Families of Dependent Children (AFDC).
  3. restricted immigrants’ eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI).
  4. established Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).
  5. required states to enforce work requirements for welfare recipients.


ANS: A, B, C, D                         PG: 113           EPAS: 2.1.4a


  1. Under Federal law, the TANF program has a lifetime limit of:
  2.      three years of assistance.
  3. 18 months of assistance.
  4. five years of assistance .
  5. ten years of assistance.


ANS: C               PG: 113           EPAS: 2.1.4a


  1. During the Great Recession of 2008, unemployment insurance trust funds
  2.      were robust enough to endure extensions of unemployment benefits.
  3. required that money be drawn down from general revenues to avoid depletion.
  4. were used to lower high unemployment rates.
  5. None of these.


ANS: B               PG: 109 (Box 4.3)       EPAS: 2.1.8a


21.    The Medicaid program is administered by the Social Security Administration.

T:      True

F:      False


ANS: F                PG: 115           EPAS: 2.1.5


  1. Upon the deaths of their retired spouses, most widows experience a one-third drop in household income from Social Security.

T:      True

F:      False


ANS: T               PG: 105           EPAS: 2.1.8a


  1. Income tax rates in the United States are the highest among developed nations.

T:         True

F:         False


ANS: T               PG: 104           EPAS: 2.1.7b


  1. All workers who pay Social Security taxes are eligible for unemployment insurance benefits.

T:      True

F:      False


ANS: F                PG: 108           EPAS: 2.1.1a


  1. In the U.S., debates about establishing a national health insurance program began with the passage of the 1935 Social Security Act.

T:      True

F:      False


ANS: F                PG: 111           EPAS: 2.1.5b



Essay/Short Answer


  1. Why do you think Donald Chambers encouraged policy analysts to think about who benefits from a social problem?


ANS: Because “winners” can become obstacles when social workers try to ameliorate the problem.  In general, consideration of both winners and losers enhances problem analysis.

PG: 90                EPAS: 2.1.5


  1. List three means-tested programs that are authorized by the Social Security Act.


ANS: SSI, Medicaid, TANF


PG: 112              EPAS: 2.1.5b


  1. Describe the four amendments made in the Social Security program upon recommendations from the 1981 National Commission on Social Security Reform:


ANS: Revision in the COLA: A one-time delay of the COLA and a “stabilizer” that automatically indexed it to the average increase in wages if that was lower than the CPI. Taxation of benefits: Retirees with incomes above $25,000 per year for individuals and $32,000 per year for couples had half of their benefits subject to federal income tax. Increased retirement ages: Starting in 2003, the age for receipt of full benefits rises gradually to 67.Work incentives: Beneficiaries could earn more without having their benefits reduced, and those over 70 who worked would not have their benefits reduced at all.


PG: 99                EPAS: 2.1.9a



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