From Slavery to Freedom Ist Edition By John Hope Franklin – Test Bank
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Chapter 2: Africans in the Atlantic World
- What percentage of the persons who migrated to the Americas between 1700 and 1780 were slaves?
- All of the following statements about Juan Garrido are true EXCEPT
- he planted the first wheat crop in the Americas.
- he participated in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
- he remained a slave his entire life despite his many achievements.
- he served for a time as a civil official in Spain’s Mexican empire.
- As one of only four survivors of Pánfilo de Narvaez’s ill-fated expedition to Florida, the African explorer Estevan proved especially helpful because of his
- military prowess.
- linguistic skills.
- self-sacrificing humility.
- physical strength.
- Which African explorer was known by Native Americans as “the Son of the Sun”?
- Juan Garrido
- Jean Baptiste Point du Sable
- Quobna Ottobah Cugoano
- Which of the following statements about Africans’ involvement in the exploration of the New World is LEAST accurate?
- Early English explorers relied heavily on African guides and laborers.
- Africans, both free and enslaved, contributed substantially to Spanish enterprises in the Americas.
- Africans constituted a significant portion of early settlers in France’s North American colonies.
- Some Africans held positions of authority or responsibility in European empires and excursions in the New World.
- Which of the following statements about Europeans’ use of slave labor in the Americas is LEAST accurate?
- Even before the discovery of the Americas, European planters had experience using African slaves to produce crops such as sugar.
- European settlers in the Americas intended from the beginning to use African slaves as their primary labor source.
- In some instances, European settlers adopted existing systems of Native American slavery to meet their labor needs.
- The use of enslaved laborers made the production of crops such as sugar an immensely profitable one for European planters.
- The primary reason that European planters in the Americas came to rely on the labor of African slaves was that
- Europeans regarded Africans as racially inferior to other races and viewed them as the only people fit for enslavement.
- Africans were generally more meek and docile than Native Americans, who refused to allow themselves to be enslaved.
- the importation of Old World diseases and the harsh labor demands of European conquistadores devastated the native populations of the Americas.
- unlike African societies, Native American societies were too well organized and sophisticated for Europeans to conquer until long after the discovery of the Americas.
- In 1517, the Spanish friar Bartolomé de Las Casas, disturbed by the suffering which Spanish conquistadores had wrought on the native populations of America, became an important advocate of
- the dismantling of European empires and settlements in the Americas.
- the abolition of slavery and all other forms of coerced labor.
- the substitution of small farms in place of large plantations.
- the importation of African slaves to the Americas.
- Which of the following statements about African slavery in European countries during the sixteenth century is MOST accurate?
- Although all European nations allowed slavery in their American colonies, they prohibited it within the borders of their homelands.
- By the end of the sixteenth century, African slaves had become a substantial portion of the agricultural labor force in continental Europe.
- The large numbers of landless white laborers prevented African slavery from becoming a substantial segment of continental Europe’s labor force.
- Although a few African slaves lived and worked in Europe, there were never more than a few hundred of them in any given location.
- During the first half of the seventeenth century, England attempted to address the labor needs of its North American colonies primarily through
- the use of indentured white servants.
- the enslavement of Native Americans.
- the importation of African slaves.
- the employment of free white laborers.
- English colonists in places such as Virginia adopted African slavery for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
- escaped African slaves could be more easily identified than escaped white servants.
- despite the higher initial costs of slaves, they generally provided their masters with more years of service than did white servants.
- the temporary nature of white servitude meant that it was a less stable labor system than slavery.
- English colonists found it distasteful to place fellow white people in servitude and so abandoned the practice of white servitude as quickly as possible.
- What were “slave factories” such as the one at Elmina?
- markets in the Americas where newly-arrived slaves were auctioned off to planters
- trading posts in Africa where slaves were bought and sold
- early industrial centers where slaves produced manufactured goods in mass quantities
- any large-scale enterprise, such as sugar plantations, which relied primarily on slave labor
- In Africa, European traders commonly acquired African slaves in return for all of the following items EXCEPT
- brass utensils.
- cotton textiles.
- What European nation played a direct role in instigating a series of decades-long wars in West Central Africa in the sixteenth century?
- What was the primary means by which European slave traders obtained African slaves?
- They bartered for slaves from African slave traders.
- They launched raids on poorly defended African villages.
- They conquered large swaths of African territory and enslaved the people within their new colonies.
- They used their superior military technology to force African rulers to provide them with slaves from the rulers’ own kingdoms.
- What was a caboceer?
- an African agent who acquired slaves for European traders at prearranged prices
- an African immigrant who lived in Europe and who spoke European languages and adopted European customs
- an African soldier who fought alongside European conquistadores in the New World
- an African overseer who maintained order in New World plantations for his European master
- In 1750, what was the typical price of a healthy young male slave purchased on the Gold Coast?
- £2 sterling
- £20 sterling
- £200 sterling
- £2000 sterling
- Whose narrative is the best known autobiographical account of an eighteenth-century enslaved African?
- Juan Garrido
- Jean Baptiste Point du Sable
- Olaudah Equiano
- Which of the following statements about African resistance to enslavement is LEAST accurate?
- Because the institution of slavery had a longstanding history in Africa, enslaved Africans generally only attempted to escape once they were placed in the hands of European traders.
- European slave traders had to place netting around the decks of their slave ships because so many Africans preferred death to slavery in the New World.
- To minimize the risk of rebellion, European slave ships generally sailed with crews that were substantially larger than other ships of the same size.
- Slave ships whose cargoes included large numbers of enslaved women were more likely to face revolts than slave ships which primarily carried enslaved men.
- Which of the following statements about slave ships is LEAST accurate?
- Diseases such as smallpox and “the flux” frequently dealt mortal blows to both the cargoes and the crews of slave ships.
- Although countries such as Britain enacted legislation to limit the number of slaves which a given ship could carry, slavers often crammed their holds with as many slaves as they could in defiance of the law.
- The numbers of deaths on slave ships were high largely because slavers found it more profitable not to purchase fresh provisions or medicines before leaving the coast of Africa.
- The trade in slaves was so profitable that European traders could reasonably expect to earn as much as a 100% profit from an investment in a slave ship.
- The term “middle passage” refers to
- the journey which enslaved Africans made from the African interior to the African coast.
- the journey which enslaved Africans made from the African coast to the Americas.
- the journey which enslaved Africans made from the islands of the Caribbean to settlements in North America.
- the stop in English ports such as Liverpool which slavers made en route from the Americas to Africa.
- Approximately how many Africans were transported across to the Americas during the era of the slave trade?
- 230 million
- 12.5 million
- 3.3 million
- 96.2 million
- To which region of the Americas were African slaves first shipped in large numbers?
- the Caribbean
- Mexico and Central America
- the eastern coast of North America
- What significant action did the English privateer John Hawkins perform in 1562?
- He became the first person to introduce African slaves to an English colony in the Americas.
- He convinced the Spanish king to award him the asiento de negroes, the exclusive right to sell African slaves in the Spanish colonies.
- He introduced the sugar crop to the Caribbean, thereby creating an immensely profitable enterprise.
- He instigated a long-term English effort to smuggle African slaves into the colonies of Spanish America.
- Which profitable Caribbean island did England seize from Spain in 1655?
- St. Eustatius
- All of the following factors contributed to the high death rates and low birth rates among slaves on Caribbean islands EXCEPT
- the large populations of white settlers who competed with slaves for the islands’ resources.
- the grueling work hours which slaves endured.
- the skimpy and often healthy provisions given to slaves by masters.
- the relatively small numbers of female slaves.
- Which of the following statements about pregnancy and childbearing in the Caribbean is LEAST accurate?
- Masters expected pregnant slaves to work right up to the moment of childbirth.
- Masters treated pregnant slaves well because a healthy baby was a profitable investment.
- Masters rarely granted women more than a month to recuperate after having given birth.
- Masters sent mothers into the field with their infants on their backs and whipped the mothers if they paused to tend to the child’s needs.
- Which of the following statements BEST describes Caribbean planters’ attitudes toward punishing their slaves?
- Although slave codes were harsh at first, they declined in severity as the black population grew to vastly outnumber the white population and masters grew to fear retaliation.
- Masters strove to find a delicate balance between maintaining discipline over their slaves without causing significant physical harm to them.
- Because masters could so easily procure new slaves, they felt little compunction against maintaining discipline through brutal measures.
- Although slave codes allowed planters to use harsh measures against insubordinate slaves, they also stipulated harsh punishments for masters who brutalized their slaves excessively or without good cause.
- After waging a fifteen-year war on the island of Jamaica, what happened to the Maroons led by Colonel Cudjoe?
- They received recognition of their right to live independently in their own towns.
- They were captured and brutally executed as a warning to other slaves.
- They were captured, re-enslaved, and sold to planters throughout the Caribbean.
- They forced their enemy to sail them to Africa where they established their own settlements.
- Which of the following statements about slave resistance in the Caribbean is LEAST accurate?
- At the end of Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760, authorities executed more than 500 Jamaican slaves.
- Because of the marked rebelliousness of Caribbean slaves, planters in North America insisted on only purchasing “saltwater” blacks from Africa.
- After existing for more than a century and contributing to a number of slave rebellions, a Maroon community in Saint Domingue gained the recognition of the island’s colonial government in the 1780s.
- Although slaves experienced cruelty throughout most of the Caribbean, they enjoyed relatively benign treatment on Danish islands, which were not coincidentally marked by a near complete absence of slave rebellions.
- Approximately how many Africans entered Mexico during the first century of Spanish presence there?
- During which century did the largest influx of Africans to Mexico occur?
- Which of the following statements about African slaves in mainland Latin America is LEAST accurate?
- Unlike in the Caribbean, racial integration between Africans and other groups remained a rare phenomenon.
- In some parts of Latin America, runaway slaves formed armed resistance groups which successfully defied attempts by the Spanish colonial army to subdue them.
- Some Africans in Latin America managed to gain their freedom and become substantial citizens.
- Large numbers of Africans lived along the Pacific Coast of Latin America during the colonial period.
- In 1810, blacks and mulattoes constituted over one half of the total population of which modern-day country?
- What event in 1540 stimulated the importation of African slaves into Brazil?
- a smallpox epidemic which wiped out much of the Indian population
- the merging of the Portuguese and Spanish crowns
- the introduction of sugar cultivation
- the Portuguese acquisition of a monopoly over slaves exported from the Kongo
- Which single colony received the largest percentage of African slaves brought over to the New World?
- Which of the following statements about slavery in Brazil is LEAST accurate?
- The majority of Brazilian slaves worked in gold mines where masters could obtain the most profit from their labor.
- Brazilian slaves divided into three distinct groups: urban slaves, mining slaves, and plantation slaves.
- Brazilian slaves had the opportunity to earn their own money and hence to obtain their freedom.
- Female slaves were more likely to be freed than male ones and, by custom, were freed after bearing ten children.
- What were negros de ganhos?
- slaves whose masters allowed them to seek out work outside the masters’ estates
- slaves who obtained their freedom after converting to Roman Catholicism
- slaves who worked in the gold mines of the Brazilian interior
- the followers of a self-proclaimed king who fomented a rebellion in the city of Santa Marta in 1555
- Which of the following statements about the Palmares rebellion in Alagoas, Brazil, is LEAST accurate?
- The insurgent slaves established their own republic which lasted for over sixty years.
- The insurgent slaves created community institutions based on the Portuguese ones prevalent throughout Brazil.
- The insurgent slaves managed to repulse, for a time, attacks from both Portuguese and Dutch armies.
- The leaders of the insurrection hurled themselves to their deaths when capture by Portuguese forces became inevitable.
- British slave societies in Protestant North America differed from those in Catholic Latin America in all of the following ways EXCEPT
- slave marriages in Latin American colonies received formal recognition.
- interracial marriages were more common in Latin American colonies.
- slaves in North America had more opportunities to learn to read.
- slaves in North America were less likely to be required by their masters to attend religious services.
- What roles did Africans play in the Old World conquest of the New World? Would European colonies in the Americas have succeeded without the transatlantic migration of Africans? Should the colonization of the Americas be regarded as a primarily African, rather than a European, phenomenon?
- Discuss the process by which European slave traders acquired African slaves. To what degree could European traders dictate terms to African rulers? To what degree were European traders dependent on African agents to acquire slaves for them? Could the transatlantic slave trade have reached the magnitude that it did without the active participation of African slavers? Were Africans who participated in the transatlantic slave trade more, less, or equally responsible for the horrors of the Middle Passage as European slave traders and American slaveholders?
- Describe the experience of slaves in the Caribbean islands. Why were conditions there so harsh? To what degree was the suffering of Caribbean slaves the result of natural factors such as disease and the climate and to what degree was it the result of human action? Why did Caribbean planters express so little concern for their slaves?
- Discuss the ways in which slaves resisted the slave system. When did their resistance to the system begin? In what circumstances was resistance most successful? What were the most effective forms of resistance? Which groups of slaves were most likely to rebel against slavery? Was outright rebellion against slavery a viable option for slaves in the Americas? Why or why not?
- Discuss the nature of the Middle Passage. What were the worst aspects of the passage? Did those aspects result from malice, neglect, or were they an inevitable result of the scale of the passage? Did the capitalistic nature of the passage curb or aggravate the passage’s worst excesses?
- Compare slavery in the Caribbean, Spanish Latin America, and Brazil. What features did slavery in the three regions share? What significant differences existed from region to region? Which regions offered the most opportunities for manumission or revolt? What roles did economics, religion, and demography play in shaping the character of slavery in the different regions?
- Discuss how African slavery developed in the Americas. What other labor systems were attempted before African slavery took root? Why did these systems fail? What made African slavery such a successful system for European colonists?
Chapter 4: Eighteenth-Century Slave Societies
- When speaking of slavery in eighteenth-century North America, the phrase “seasoned slave” refers to an enslaved person who
- spent time in the Caribbean before reaching North America.
- was brought to North America directly from Africa.
- had assimilated to the labor system prevalent in the region in which he or she lived.
- had acquired unusual artisanal skills.
- All of the following trends were evident in eighteenth-century North American slave society EXCEPT
- men were imported in larger numbers than women.
- slaves were increasingly imported from the Caribbean instead of directly from Africa.
- the enslaved population of North America began to grow through natural increase as well as importation.
- the number of enslaved persons imported to North America increased dramatically from the number imported in the seventeenth century.
- Which region of colonial North America had the smallest black population?
- Lower South
- Upper South
- New England
- Which of the following statements about the black population of eighteenth-century New England is LEAST accurate?
- Although the number of blacks in the New England colonies increased significantly, blacks remained a very small percentage of the population in most of the colonies.
- Because the number of blacks in New England was so small, the black population there kept to itself and had little social interaction with the white population.
- Most of the black population of New England was concentrated in urban centers rather than the rural countryside.
- Many slaves in New England worked in skilled trades or as domestic servants.
- Which New England colony experienced the most significant growth in its enslaved population during the eighteenth century?
- Rhode Island
- New Hampshire
- Which of the following statements best describes Negro Election Day?
- It was an annual ceremony in which the black population of several New England states was allowed to select token representatives to the colonial assemblies.
- It was an annual ceremony run by white colonists in several New England states who used it as an opportunity to mock and ridicule the black population.
- It was an annual ceremony secretly conducted by disgruntled slaves in several New England states who chose representatives to lead resistance against the slave system.
- It was an annual ceremony in which both slaves and masters participated that simultaneously strengthened communal ties among blacks and secured obedience to the slave system.
- The slave Onesimus, given to the illustrious colonial clergymen Cotton Mather, is most notable for what accomplishment?
- He introduced Mather to the process of inoculation for smallpox.
- Under Mather’s tutelage, he became the first black slave to convert to Christianity.
- He introduced Mather to African call-and-response techniques which Mather popularized within the Puritan church.
- He introduced Mather to rice-cultivating techniques which made his master a rich man and which introduced a new cash crop to North America.
- What impact did religion have on slavery throughout most of the eighteenth century in New England?
- Because of their religious convictions, white New Englanders implemented abolitionist policies which would end slavery in their region by the middle of the eighteenth century.
- Although they held fervently to their religious beliefs, white New Englanders did not allow those beliefs to interfere with the profits to be made from slavery and the slave trade.
- Despite their religious convictions, white New Englanders imposed slave codes and punishments on their slaves which, on the whole, were more brutal than what was common farther South.
- Because of their religious convictions, white New Englanders refused to participate in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, though they grudgingly accepted the existence of slavery within their own colonies.
- Which colony had the largest number of slaves in the North throughout the eighteenth century?
- New York
- Rhode Island
- Celebrated in New York and New Jersey, the black festival of Pinkster combined African elements with elements derived primarily from which European culture?
- Compared to other regions of colonial North America in the eighteenth century, the Mid-Atlantic region was notable for its
- unusually large black population.
- almost complete absence of African slaves.
- cultural and ethnic diversity.
- entrenched tradition of racial equality.
- By the middle of the eighteenth century, the manumission of slaves in the Mid-Atlantic colonies had been
- prohibited entirely by colonial assemblies.
- enacted completely by legislative decree.
- dramatically increased by monetary rewards offered to masters who freed their slaves.
- dramatically decreased by legal requirements that masters post heavy bonds before freeing their slaves.
- A unique feature of slavery in the Mid-Atlantic colonies was that
- the region’s Quaker colonists began to debate the morality of slavery and to launch an antislavery movement earlier than colonists elsewhere.
- the abundance of food produced in the region ensured that most of the black population was well-fed, and health problems related to malnutrition were rare.
- the cold climate killed off most germs, leaving northern slaves free from afflictions such as measles and whooping cough which devastated slave populations in more southern regions.
- slaves in the Mid-Atlantic worked almost exclusively in artisanal trades, while the large farms of the Hudson Valley were worked almost entirely by white laborers.
- Approximately what percentage of slaves imported into Virginia between 1727 and 1740 came directly from Africa?
- Approximately what percentage of African-born slaves died within the first year of their arrival in Virginia?
- African-born slaves differed from Creoles in all of the following ways EXCEPT
- African-born slaves were more likely to have filed teeth.
- African-born slaves were more likely to have “country marks.”
- Creoles sometimes looked down on unassimilated African-born slaves.
- Creoles usually attempted escape in groups whereas African-born slaves fled as individuals.
- By the middle of the eighteenth century, the slave population of the Chesapeake exhibited all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
- ethnic differences within the slave population became less pronounced.
- the number of slaves imported from Africa continued to increase steadily.
- the number of female slaves increased, leading to a more balanced sex ratio.
- the health and longevity of slaves improved noticeably.
- By 1740, blacks constituted approximately what percentage of the Chesapeake’s overall population?
- The slave population of the Chesapeake was remarkable for being the first black population in the New World to
- assimilate to the European culture of the slaveholding class.
- increase by natural reproduction.
- create stable Maroon communities beyond white control.
- include a large proportion of free blacks in addition to slaves.
- The introduction of which profitable crop in the late seventeenth century transformed black life in the South Carolina Lowcountry?
- Which people introduced English colonists to the techniques used to grow rice in Carolina?
- Native Americans
- West Africans
- East Asians
- Throughout most of the eighteenth century, the majority of slaves imported from Africa to North America were from which African region?
- In terms of racial demographics, the colony of South Carolina most closely resembled colonies in
- the Chesapeake.
- the Mid-Atlantic.
- the Caribbean.
- New England.
- In 1750, blacks represented approximately what percentage of the population of South Carolina?
- In which decade did the slave population of South Carolina begin to achieve growth through natural reproduction?
- In general, how did slavery in the Chesapeake differ from slavery in the Lowcountry of South Carolina?
- In the Chesapeake, interracial contact was more daily and pervasive than in the Lowcountry.
- In the Lowcountry, slaves were more closely supervised by their masters than in the Chesapeake.
- In the Chesapeake, slaves were expected to complete a certain task during the day, after which their time was theirs to do with as they pleased; in the Lowcountry, slaves were worked by drivers from dawn till dusk.
- In the Lowcountry, African cultural traits disappeared more quickly than they did in the Chesapeake.
- Which of the following statements about slaves living in Charleston, South Carolina, is most accurate?
- Their close proximity to the white population gave slaves in Charleston far less mobility and social freedom than slaves in the Lowcountry.
- Because slaves in Charleston tended to be skilled artisans, there were far fewer female slaves in the city than there were in the countryside.
- Slaves in Charleston were far less likely than Lowcountry slaves to adopt English clothing or the English language.
- Mulattoes in Charleston enjoyed greater privileges and a higher status than other blacks in the city.
- In the mid-eighteenth century, the assembly of South Carolina purchased the freedom of the slave Caesar in response to
- his skill in minkisi, or sacred medicine.
- his service in the colony’s militia during a war against neighboring Indians.
- his long-term, faithful service to his invalid master.
- his invention of a new machine for harvesting rice.
- In the Lower South, slaves were attracted by the promise of freedom in Florida, a colony controlled in the first half of the eighteenth century by which power?
- Which of the following statements about the Stono Rebellion is MOST accurate?
- The uprising lasted for several days before it was finally put down.
- The uprising resulted in the deaths of almost four hundred white colonists.
- The uprising was led by slaves who had converted to evangelical Protestant faiths during the Great Awakening.
- The uprising was led by slaves who hoped to escape to freedom in the western lands across the Mississippi River.
- The first black town in North America was known as
- St. Augustine.
- St. Maló.
- Mose, or Fort Mose.
- In 1693 and 1733, the Spanish crown offered freedom to British slaves who escaped to Spanish dominions and
- agreed to serve in the Spanish navy against Great Britain.
- served for fifteen years as apprentices to Spanish masters.
- professed adherence to Roman Catholicism.
- brought with them scalps from two British subjects.
- What was Francisco Menendez’s claim to fame?
- He led a militia composed of loyal slaves which helped to hunt down the Stono rebels.
- He helped to establish a free black town in Florida and to recapture it after a British invasion.
- He became the first African chief of the Creek Indians and led them into war against the colony of Georgia.
- He led a band of blacks from slavery in Spanish Florida to freedom in British Georgia.
- The War of Jenkins’ Ear spilled over into North America when which governor and founder of Georgia attacked the Spanish fortress at St. Augustine?
- Francisco Menendez
- James Oglethorpe
- John Norman
- Cotton Mather
- Between 1763 and the end of the American War for Independence, Florida was controlled by
- A significant difference between slavery in South Carolina and slavery in Louisiana was that
- slaves in South Carolina enjoyed considerable cultural autonomy whereas slaves in Louisiana did not.
- slaves in Louisiana enjoyed considerable cultural autonomy whereas slaves in South Carolina did not.
- the slaves brought to Louisiana early in the colony’s history came mostly directly from Africa whereas the slaves brought to South Carolina came from the West Indies.
- the slaves brought to South Carolina early in the colony’s history came mostly directly from Africa whereas the slaves brought to Louisiana came from the West Indies.
- The African words zinzin and gris-gris referred to
- strains of rice grown in Louisiana.
- charms or amulets carried for protection.
- a special headdress which distinguished Bambara people from other African groups.
- the land allotted to slaves to work for their own profit.
- The three major crops grown in early eighteenth-century Louisiana included all of the following EXCEPT
- In 1729, black Louisianans joined a rebellion against the French led by which Indian people?
- the Choctaws
- the Natchez
- the Chickasaw
- the Miami
- Which escaped slave was a leader of the Maroon villages called Gaillardeland?
- St. Maló
- Compare slavery in the Chesapeake with slavery in the Lowcountry of Carolina. In which region did African traits survive longest and why?
- Compare Pinkster Day and Negro Election Day. What characteristics did then two festivals have in common? What varied purposes did each celebration serve? What does the existence of these two festivals suggest about the acceptance of blacks within the broader society of the northern colonies, especially when compared with the treatment of blacks in the South?
- Compare slavery in the Catholic colonies of Louisiana and Florida with slavery in Britain’s North American colonies. In what ways were the lives of slaves in Florida and Louisiana hardly different from those of British slaves? What differences in their situations were most pronounced? Did these differences stem from Catholic doctrine, from the relatively weak French and Spanish presence in North America, or from some combination of the two?
- What problems did the nearby presence of Spanish Florida present for the preservation of slavery in South Carolina and Georgia? How did slaves exploit these problems to their own advantage? Might the harsher nature of slavery in the Deep South be attributable in part to the greater insecurity of the institution in that region?
- Identify specific African customs and practices which survived into the eighteenth century in North America. What sort of African cultural practices had the longest life in the Americas? Which African customs helped to delineate a unique African-American culture and which were incorporated into the broader American culture? Should colonial African-American culture be seen as distinct from white colonial culture or as an integral component of it?
- Discuss interactions between Native American peoples and black slaves. Why did members of the two groups sometimes cooperate and sometimes fight against each other? How did European colonists respond to the threat of cooperation between blacks and Indians?
- Unlike in the Caribbean, slaves in British North America rarely established Maroon communities, yet there were Maroon communities in Spanish Florida and French and Spanish Louisiana. Compare the histories of Mose and Gaillardeland. How was each created? How was each brought to an end? What circumstances might explain the existence of these two Maroon communities and the relative absence of such communities elsewhere in North America?
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