Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concept 10th Edition Timby -Test Bank


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Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concept 10th Edition Timby -Test Bank

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Chapter 2- Nursing Process

1. A client reports to a health care facility with complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting. The client’s wife informs the nurse that the client had gone out for dinner the previous night. Which of the following would be the primary source of assessment data?
  A) Client’s friends
  B) Client’s wife
  C) Client himself
  D) Test reports
  Ans: C
  As the client is in a conscious state, he himself is the primary source of information since he can give firsthand information. The client’s wife, friends, and test results would be the secondary sources of data.



2. A client with HIV has been admitted to a health care facility. Which of the following nursing diagnoses should be of the highest priority, keeping in mind the client’s condition?
  A) Risk for activity intolerance
  B) Risk for ineffective coping
  C) Risk for infection
  D) Risk for imbalanced nutrition
  Ans: C
  Clients with HIV have decreased immunity and are prone to infections. Infection in a client with HIV is life-threatening, because it makes the client vulnerable to other infections, and also impairs his or her already weakened immune functions. Clients with HIV may not have problems with other activities and food. They may often feel depressed, but this is not the highest priority.



3. A client is being prepared for cardiac catheterization. The nurse performs an initial assessment and records the vital signs. Which of the following data collected can be classified as subjective data?
  A) Blood pressure
  B) Nausea
  C) Heart rate
  D) Respiratory rate
  Ans: B
  Subjective data are those that the client can feel and describe. Nausea is subjective data, as it can only be described and not measured. Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate are measurable factors and are therefore objective data.



4. A client who has to undergo a thyroidectomy is worried that he may have to wear a scarf around his neck after surgery. What nursing diagnosis should the nurse document in the care plan?
  A) Risk for impaired physical mobility due to surgery
  B) Ineffective denial related to poor coping mechanisms
  C) Disturbed body image related to the incision scar
  D) Risk of injury related to surgical outcomes
  Ans: C
  The client is concerned about the surgery scar on his neck, which would disturb his body image; therefore, the appropriate diagnosis should be disturbed body image related to the incision scar. Risk for impaired physical mobility may be present after surgery, but is not related to the concerns expressed by the client. Likewise, ineffective denial related to poor coping mechanisms and injury related to surgical outcomes are also not related to the client’s concern.



5. A nurse is giving postoperative care to a client after knee arthroplasty. Which of the following is a possible short-term goal for this client?
  A) To ambulate the client to a bedside chair
  B) To help the client return to activities of daily life
  C) To maintain a healthy and active lifestyle
  D) To prevent repeat surgery in the client
  Ans: A
  The short-term goal in this case is to help the client ambulate to the bedside chair. The other goals, such as helping the client return to activities of daily life, to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle, and to prevent repeat surgery in the client are long-term goals and may take weeks or months to achieve. On the other hand, short-term goals can be achieved in a day or a week.



6. A nurse who is caring for a client admitted to the nursing unit with acute abdominal pain formulates the care plan for the client. Which of the following nursing diagnoses is the highest priority for this client?
  A) Impaired comfort
  B) Disturbed body image
  C) Disturbed sleep pattern
  D) Activity intolerance
  Ans: A
  Acute pain in the abdomen disturbs all the systems of the body. Relieving the pain should be the nurse’s first priority. According to Maslow, physiologic needs are the highest priority. The client may have disturbed body image, disturbed sleep patterns, or activity intolerance, but all these are secondary to pain.



7. The nurse is performing an assessment of a client diagnosed with excess fluid volume due to renal failure. Which of the following assessment data is the nurse likely to find?
  A) Hypotension
  B) Feeble pulse
  C) Crackles
  D) Drowsiness
  Ans: C
  Crackles are the most important sign found in excess fluid volume. The client has the nursing diagnosis of excess fluid volume. The signs of increased fluid volume are adventitious lung sounds, a bounding pulse, and high blood pressure; therefore, a diagnosis of hypotension or feeble pulse would be incorrect. Consciousness may become impaired at later stages when the fluid shift starts. The adventitious lung sounds indicate excess fluid volume.



8. A nurse is interviewing an asthmatic client who has a high respiratory rate and is having difficulty breathing. What nursing diagnosis is the priority in this client’s care?
  A) Impaired gas exchange related to the disease condition
  B) Impaired verbal communication related to the breathing problem
  C) Inability to speak due to ineffective airway clearance
  D) Impaired physical mobility related to shortness of breath
  Ans: A
  The client is most likely experiencing impaired gas exchange as a result of the pathophysiology of asthma. This is a priority over mobility and communication issues, though each may be valid. Inability to speak due to ineffective airway clearance is not a proper nursing diagnosis.



9. A nurse is caring for a client with Parkinson disease. Which of the following nursing diagnoses identified by the nurse should be of the highest priority?
  A) Impaired physical mobility
  B) Risk for memory loss
  C) Ineffective role performance
  D) Risk for injury
  Ans: D
  Clients with Parkinson disease are at higher risk of injury due to their physical limitations and cognitive deficiencies. Therefore, it becomes important for the nurse to ensure that the environment is safe. The client may also have impaired physical mobility, risk for memory loss, and ineffective role performance, but the highest priority is to prevent injury and ensure the client’s safety.



10. A nurse is caring for a client with cancer who is experiencing pain. Which of the following would be the most appropriate assessment of the client’s pain?
  A) Pain relief after nursing intervention
  B) Verbal and nonverbal cues of client
  C) The nurse’s impression of the client’s pain
  D) The client’s pain based on a pain rating
  Ans: D
  The client’s assessment of pain, based on a pain rating, is the most appropriate assessment data. The pain is rated on a 1 to 10 scale and nursing actions are then implemented to reduce the pain. The nurse’s impression of pain and nonverbal clues are subjective data. Pain relief after nursing intervention is appropriate, but is a part of evaluation.



11. A client is admitted to a psychiatric treatment unit with psychosis. Which of the following is the most appropriate diagnosis for this client?
  A) Dressing/grooming self-care deficit
  B) Disturbed thought process
  C) Risk for confusion
  D) Risk for imbalanced nutrition
  Ans: B
  A client with psychosis is unable to recognize certain aspects of reality. The client may also experience hallucinations and delusions. Therefore, disturbed thought process is the most appropriate nursing diagnosis for such a client. The client may be at risk for confusion, have difficulty in dressing and grooming, and may not eat properly; however, the priority is the thought process because it is the main reason for all other symptoms.



12. When caring for a client, the nurse identifies and analyzes data to determine nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems. Which of the following is an important role of the nurse when caring for a client with collaborative problems?
  A) Identifying factors that place the client at risk
  B) Resolving health issues through independent nursing measures
  C) Reporting trends that suggest development of complications
  D) Managing an emerging problem with the help of the registered nurse
  Ans: C
  The nurse should report trends that suggest development of complications to bring to notice the need for collaborative intervention for a client. Collaborative problems are physiologic complications that require both nurse- and physician-prescribed interventions. Identifying factors that place the client at risk, resolving health issues through independent nursing measures, and managing an emerging problem with the help of the registered nurse are nursing roles performed during a nursing diagnosis.



13. A nurse is documenting the plan of care for a client with AIDS. Which of the following is most important when documenting the plan of care?
  A) Avoid disclosing the client’s name and address on the plan of care.
  B) Ensure that the client’s medical record and nursing interventions are written.
  C) Ask one particular nurse to revise and update the plan of care daily.
  D) Ensure that the client’s medical insurance number is stated on the sheet.
  Ans: B
  The nurse should document the client’s medical record and the planned nursing interventions in the plan of care as per the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requirements. To communicate the plan of care, each nurse assigned to the client refers to the sheet, reviews it, and revises it daily. Stating the medical insurance number of the client on the sheet is of secondary importance as it ensures reimbursement from insurance companies. Nurses make certain that the client is identified on the plan of care.



14. A nurse is evaluating and revising a plan of care for a client with cardiac catheterization. Which of the following actions should the nurse perform before revising a plan of care?
  A) Discuss any lack of progress with the client.
  B) Collect information on expected outcomes.
  C) Identify the client’s health-related problems.
  D) Select more appropriate nursing interventions.
  Ans: A
  The nurse should discuss any lack of progress with the client so that both the client and the nurse can speculate on what activities need to be discontinued, added, or changed. Collecting information is done during the assessment. Identification of the client’s health-related problems is done during diagnosis. Nurses select appropriate nursing interventions and document the plan of care in the planning stage of the nursing process, not during evaluation.



15. A nurse provides care in a variety of different settings but is aware of the fact that the nursing process is equally applicable to each of these settings. The nursing process is best defined as:
  A) A group of tasks that cumulatively result in the resolution of health problems
  B) A process by which diseases are cured with the full involvement of the client himself or herself
  C) An organized sequence of steps with the goal of managing a client’s health problems
  D) A process for distributing finite nursing time and energy for maximum benefit to clients
  Ans: C
  The nursing process is an organized sequence of problem-solving steps used to identify and to manage the health problems of clients. It is a way of thinking and not solely a group of tasks and it does not always lead to the curing of disease. The main goal of the nursing process is not the equitable distribution of finite resources, though this is often necessary.



16. A client has been admitted to the acute medical unit of the hospital after an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Which of the following aspects of this client’s care exemplifies the seven characteristics of the nursing process? Select all that apply.
  A) The nurse ensures that interventions are within the legal scope of nursing.
  B) The nurse weighs treatment options in light of financial costs to the hospital.
  C) The nurse chooses interventions that can be performed without the involvement of other disciplines.
  D) The nurse applies a systematic critical thinking process when providing care to the client.
  E) The nurse seeks to involve the client in the planning and execution of care.
  Ans: A, D, E
  Characteristics of the nursing process include active client involvement, critical thinking, and respect for legal parameters. The nurse does not choose interventions based on the fact that they exclude members of other health disciplines. Consideration of costs to the institution is not a primary characteristic of the nursing process.



17. A nurse is planning the nursing care of an elderly client who presented to the emergency department in respiratory distress and has been admitted to an inpatient unit. Which of the following nursing diagnoses is correctly worded?
  A) Excess fluid volume related to congestive heart failure as manifested by peripheral and pulmonary edema
  B) Exacerbation of congestive heart failure related to peripheral edema, excess fluid volume, and pulmonary edema
  C) Excess fluid volume and impaired gas exchanged related to congestive heart failure
  D) Congestive heart failure resulting ineffective airway clearance related to pulmonary edema
  Ans: A
  The diagnosis, “Excess fluid volume related to congestive heart failure as manifested by peripheral and pulmonary edema” contains the three parts of a nursing diagnostic statement: problem, etiology, and signs and symptoms. The diagnostic statement should begin with the nursing diagnosis, not the etiology, and each statement should include only one nursing diagnosis.



18. Following the completion of a comprehensive assessment, a nurse has identified the following nursing diagnosis for a newly admitted client: Risk for aspiration related to dysphagia as evidenced by coughing during feeding. The phrase “related to dysphagia” constitutes what component of a nursing diagnostic statement?
  A) Etiology
  B) Pathophysiology
  C) Root cause
  D) Epidemiology
  Ans: A
  The phrase “related to” denotes the etiology of a nursing diagnosis.



19. A nursing student has been providing care for a client at the health care facility for the past several days. The client has a number of comorbid health problems and is being simultaneously treated for many of these. The student has chosen to create a concept map because concept mapping allows the student to:
  A) Identify the health problem that is most deserving of the student’s care and attention
  B) Identify the relationships between the various aspects of the client’s health circumstances
  C) Create a plan that differentiates between nursing diagnoses and medical diagnoses
  D) Evaluate the applicability of nursing diagnoses and the effectiveness of nursing interventions
  Ans: B
  A concept map is primarily a tool for organizing data and identifying relationships. It is not primarily a tool for prioritizing particular health problems or facilitating evaluation of interventions. Concept mapping can be used to inform care planning, but the two processes are not synonymous.


Chapter 4- Health and Illness

1. A nurse is caring for a child with Huntington’s chorea, a hereditary condition. Which of the following statements is true of hereditary conditions?
  A) The symptoms are manifested immediately after birth.
  B) The condition is due to maternal exposure to toxins.
  C) The condition is acquired from genes of one or both parents.
  D) The course is associated with exacerbations and remissions.
  Ans: C
  Hereditary conditions are acquired from genes of one or both parents. The symptoms may or may not be manifested immediately after birth. Some hereditary diseases, including Huntington’s chorea, remain asymptomatic and undiagnosed until adulthood. Hereditary conditions are not necessarily due to abnormalities in embryonic development.



2. A nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with pancreatitis. Which of the following is a priority need for nursing management?
  A) Acute pain in the abdomen
  B) Depression due to recurrent symptoms
  C) Inability to take care of family
  D) Lack of self-confidence
  Ans: A
  Acute pain in the abdomen is a physiologic need of the client that receives attention on a priority basis. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, physiologic needs are the most important. These needs are to be fulfilled before seeking to fulfill the other needs. The needs for safety and security, love and belonging, esteem and self-esteem, and self-actualization can only be met if the basic physiologic needs are fulfilled.



3. A nurse is caring for a client who is confined to bed due to paralysis. The client has a medical history of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus for the past 5 years, besides having asthma since childhood. Which of the following is the best example of a secondary illness seen in the client?
  A) Diabetes mellitus
  B) Asthma
  C) Hypertension
  D) Stroke
  Ans: D
  Stroke is a secondary illness caused by high blood pressure and diabetes. Secondary illness is a disorder that develops from a preexisting condition. In this case, the client had a history of hypertension, which is a primary illness that caused a stroke. Diabetes mellitus and asthma represent primary illnesses in the client, as there are no preexisting conditions predisposing the client to asthma and diabetes mellitus.



4. A client with Crohn’s disease in remission is admitted to the nursing unit for follow-up care. The remission state is characterized by which of the following?
  A) Permanent relief from the signs and symptoms
  B) Temporary disappearance of signs and symptoms associated with the disease
  C) Periodic occurrence in clients with long-standing diseases
  D) Reactivation of the disease and presence of symptoms
  Ans: B
  Remission is a temporary state of disappearance of the signs and symptoms related to a particular disease. It is of short duration, but the duration is unpredictable. It is a condition opposite to exacerbation, which is characterized by reactivation of symptoms. Remission is not permanent, but is rather a temporary relief from signs and symptoms. Exacerbation is the periodic occurrence of disease in clients with chronic diseases.



5. A client admitted for hernioplasty is discharged 2 days later than the calculated time due to postoperative complications. The client is insured through a capitation scheme. In the event of late discharge of the client, who is at loss?
  A) The client
  B) The hospital
  C) The insurers
  D) The physicians
  Ans: B
  The hospital is at loss if the client is discharged late from the hospital. The client is insured through a capitation scheme, which provides a preset fee per member to the health care provider, regardless of whether the member requires services. If a client is discharged earlier, the hospital keeps the difference; if the client is discharged late, the hospital is at loss. The client is not at loss because he pays a fixed amount to the provider whether he utilizes the care or not. The doctors and the health care workers are not affected.



6. An LPN is newly recruited to the hospital. As a part of the orientation program, the nurse is informed that the nursing staff follows the primary nursing approach of the nursing model. Which of the following nursing models describes primary care nursing?
  A) The nursing staff is headed by a team leader.
  B) A single nurse plans and provides nursing care.
  C) A head nurse assigns tasks to other members.
  D) A nurse manager plans the nursing care of clients.
  Ans: B
  Primary nursing is an approach of the nursing model wherein a single nurse plans and provides client care and evaluates the client’s progress. This is unlike team nursing, where the team leader plans and evaluates nursing care. In team nursing, there is a team of nursing staff that plans and provides care together. The nursing model where the head nurse assigns specific tasks to each nurse is called the functional nursing model. Primary nursing is also different from nurse-managed care, where nursing care is based on predicted outcomes under the nursing care of a nurse manager.



7. A nurse is caring for a client who has undergone total hip replacement and is advised to continue physiotherapy after discharge. Which of the following levels of care is the outpatient physiotherapy center?
  A) Continuity of care
  B) Extended care
  C) Secondary care
  D) Tertiary care
  Ans: B
  Physiotherapy is an example of extended care. It does not involve acute care and is not compulsorily done on hospital premises. The hospital providing surgical facilities is a tertiary care center. The client, after being discharged from tertiary care, joins a physiotherapy unit for extended care.



8. A client arrives at a health care facility complaining of diarrhea and abdominal pain for the past 24 hours. The physician diagnoses the client with gastritis, an acute illness. Why is gastritis considered an acute illness?
  A) The onset is sudden.
  B) It lasts for a long time.
  C) It is difficult to treat.
  D) It is not curable.
  Ans: A
  Gastritis in this case is an acute illness because the onset is sudden. Acute illnesses affect for a short duration and are cured in a short time. Acute illnesses are not necessarily difficult to treat and are often curable. On the other hand, chronic illnesses have a gradual onset and require a longer period to be cured. In some cases, the illness may remain for a lifetime.



9. A nurse is caring for a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The nurse explains to the client that COPD is a chronic disease. Why is COPD considered a chronic disease?
  A) It has a late onset in life.
  B) It is a sequel (consequence) of acute illness and is preventable.
  C) It is resistant to treatment.
  D) It has a gradual onset and lasts for a long time.
  Ans: D
  Chronic illness has a gradual onset and lasts for a long time. It is usually seen in old age but this is not a defining characteristic. It may or may not be due to acute illness. Chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the population.



10. Which of the following health care insurance programs is likely the most suitable for a 68-year-old client?
  A) Medicaid
  B) Medicare
  C) Capitation
  D) AmeriCare
  Ans: B
  Medicare is a federal program that finances health care costs of persons aged 65 years and older, permanently disabled workers of any age and their dependents, and those with end-stage renal disease. The system is funded primarily through withholdings from an employed person’s income. Capitation is a reimbursement strategy in managed care organizations. AmeriCare is a type of private insurance. Capitation and AmeriCare are not the preferred providers for the client, considering the client’s age. Medicaid is a federal program that is operated by the states, and each state decides who is eligible and the scope of health services offered. In Medicaid, eligibility may be decided by the state, which is not the case in Medicare.



11. A client undergoes a knee replacement surgery and is included in the diagnostic-related group (DRG) 209. Which of the following is true about knee replacement surgery under the DRG system?
  A) Replacement and surgeries are not reimbursed.
  B) Replacement and surgeries are reimbursed at a predetermined rate.
  C) Replacement and surgeries are reimbursed after 1 year.
  D) Replacement and surgeries are not insured.
  Ans: B
  If a group of diseases falls in the same diagnosis-related group category, it means that all the procedures are reimbursed at basically the same rate. If actual costs are less than the reimbursed amount, the hospital keeps the difference. If costs exceed the reimbursed amount, the hospital is left with the deficit. In a DRG system, the procedures and surgeries are grouped together and the reimbursements are done at flat rate within a group. The replacement and the surgeries are reimbursed after an appropriate time and not after 1 year. Also, the replacement and the surgeries are insured.



12. A client who is disabled due to stroke is discharged from a health care unit and an LPN is assigned to provide nursing care to the client at home. This is an example of which kind of care?
  A) Extended care
  B) Secondary care
  C) Tertiary care
  D) Primary care
  Ans: A
  Extended care represents services that meet the health needs of clients who no longer require acute hospital care. It includes skilled nursing care in a person’s home or in a nursing home, and hospice care for dying clients. Primary care is provided by the family physician, the nurse, or any health care facility that is the first contact for the client. Secondary and tertiary care are provided at specialized health care units.



13. In a nursing unit, the nurse-in-charge delegates the tasks in the shift. A nursing assistant is assigned to make beds and help the clients ambulate. Another nurse is assigned to assist clients with changing positions, and another nurse to administer drugs. Which type of nursing care is being implemented?
  A) Team nursing
  B) Functional nursing
  C) Primary nursing
  D) Nurse-managed care
  Ans: B
  Functional nursing is a pattern in which each nurse on a client unit is assigned specific tasks. The nurse-in-charge delegates the major responsibilities to the staff and continuously does the assessment and evaluation of nursing care provided by the staff members. The team nursing pattern has many nursing staff providing care in a group. Primary nursing is different from all, with the admitting nurse responsible for nursing care of an individual client. Nurse-managed care is a pattern where the nurse manager plans the nursing care of clients based on their type of case and medical diagnosis.



14. A client with quadriplegia is admitted to the health care facility. The client requires highly individualized care. Which of the following nursing care approaches is likely most suitable for this client?
  A) Functional nursing
  B) Case-method nursing
  C) Primary nursing
  D) Team nursing
  Ans: C
  Primary nursing ensures highly individualized care. It is the pattern in which the admitting nurse assumes responsibility for planning client care and evaluating the client’s progress. Functional nursing does not provide individualized care; rather, it aims to finish the task. Case-method nursing addresses the health needs of a group of clients. In team nursing, a team of nurses is responsible for a group of clients.



15. A client experiencing symptoms of cardiomyopathy is referred to the cardiac specialist for diagnosis and consultation. Consultation and diagnostic tests are included in which level of the health care system?
  A) Primary care
  B) Secondary care
  C) Tertiary care
  D) Extended care
  Ans: B
  Consultation and diagnostic tests are included in the secondary level of health care. The first contact with a general physician is the primary care, and the reference to a highly specialized facility for desensitization is the tertiary care level. The secondary and tertiary care facilities are equipped to provide highly specialized care. Extended care is the care provided to clients who no longer require acute hospital care.



16. A nurse is reading the goals stated in the Healthy People 2020 report. Which of the following goals is targeted in the Healthy People 2020 report?
  A) Ensuring equal access to health services between urban and rural areas
  B) Eradicating sexually transmitted infections
  C) Providing free treatment to clients with cancer
  D) Reducing infections caused by key food-borne pathogens
  Ans: D
  One of the goals stated in the Healthy People 2020 report is to reduce infections caused by key food-borne pathogens. Providing free treatment to clients with cancer is not a targeted goal of the Healthy People 2020 report, but reducing the number of new cases of cancer as well as the illness, disability, and death caused by cancer are targeted goals. Complete eradication of sexually transmitted infections is not a stated goal, nor is equalizing access to health services.



17. A middle-aged client is distraught at receiving a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in spite of being conscientious about her health for the majority of her adult life. The client tells the nurse, “I can’t believe I no longer have my health.” The nurse should be aware that the World Health Organization defines health as
  A) The absence of acute and chronic health issues that affect the client’s quality of life.
  B) A level of function that is equal to or superior to individuals of similar age.
  C) The ability to contribute unimpeded to the quality of life on oneself and others.
  D) A state of physical, mental, and social well-being.
  Ans: D
  The WHO defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This definition does not preclude the other listed aspects of health, but none of these is considered definitive by the WHO.



18. A nurse has become involved in political efforts to ensure that a greater percentage of Americans have access to affordable health care, regardless of their individual circumstances. This view of health is reflective of what belief?
  A) Health is a limited resource.
  B) Health is a right.
  C) Health is inevitable.
  D) Health is personal responsibility.
  Ans: B
  Efforts to eradicate health disparities are often rooted in the belief that health care is a right. The belief that health care is a limited resource underlies views of the preciousness of preserving health. Personal responsibility is foundational to the view of individual ownership of one’s health status. It is unrealistic to believe that health is inevitable.



19. After experiencing an ST-wave elevation myocardial infarction, a 64-year-old man has been admitted to the cardiac unit of the hospital for care. The nurse has completed a comprehensive assessment and is creating a plan of care that is holistic in its focus. How can the nurse best integrate the principles of holism into the client’s care?
  A) By creating a plan of care that utilizes the knowledge and skills of disciplines other than nursing
  B) By continually evaluating the efficacy of nursing interventions and by making changes as needed
  C) By prioritizing the client’s spiritual and psychosocial needs over his physical needs
  D) By integrating each of the various dimensions of the client’s identity into his care
  Ans: D
  Holism is considered to be the sum of physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health. Care that reflects this multidimensional nature of individuals can be considered to be holistic. Interdisciplinary care and continual evaluation are congruent with holistic care but they are not definitive. It is not appropriate to prioritize nonphysical needs in every client; prioritization of needs should be determined on an individual basis.



20. A nurse had learned that more than 8% of Americans are currently living with diabetes mellitus. This statistic represents what epidemiological concept?
  A) Morbidity
  B) Mortality
  C) Distribution
  D) Onset
  Ans: A
  Morbidity is the incidence of a specific disease, disorder, or injury and refers to the rate or numbers of people affected. Mortality denotes the number of people who died from a particular disease or condition. Onset and distribution are not concepts that are central to epidemiology.



21. A client with medically complicated pregnancy has expressed frustration about the disparities in advice and treatment that she has received at various sites over the past several months. How can the nurse best ensure that there is continuity in the care that the client receives?
  A) Communicate clearly and frequently with other care providers
  B) Ensure that client education is provided whenever possible
  C) Explain the rationale for each assessment and treatment that the client receives
  D) Maximize the number of people who contribute to a client’s care
  Ans: A
  Continuity of care can be fostered by providing detailed and timely communication between different individuals who contribute to a client’s care. Maximizing the number of people who contribute to a client’s care is likely to reduce rather than enhance continuity of care. Client education is beneficial to care, but does not necessarily provide continuity of care.




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