Media and Culture Mass Communication in a Digital Age 10th Edition by Richard Campbell – Test Bank


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Media and Culture Mass Communication in a Digital Age 10th Edition by Richard Campbell – Test Bank

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Chapter 2- The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence

1. The Internet was originally created to transport messages more rapidly for an increasingly sedentary and isolated population.
  A) True
  B) False



2. The Internet originated as a military and government project.
  A) True
  B) False



3. ARPAnet is a browser.
  A) True
  B) False



4. The Internet is a hierarchically structured and centralized network.
  A) True
  B) False



5. The Internet is owned and operated by the federal government, which has the power to shut it down when necessary.
  A) True
  B) False



6. Computer engineer Ray Tomlinson established the “login [email protected] computer” convention for e-mail addresses.
  A) True
  B) False



7. The introduction of microprocessors, miniature circuits made of silicon, made personal computers possible.
  A) True
  B) False



8. HTML stands for “hypertext markup language.”
  A) True
  B) False



9. Netscape overtook Internet Explorer as the most popular Web browser in the late 1990s.
  A) True
  B) False



10. In the 1990s, AOL was the top Internet service provider in the United States.
  A) True
  B) False



11. E-mail was one of the earliest services of the Internet.
  A) True
  B) False



12. By 2014, Bing had nearly 66 percent of the search engine market share.
  A) True
  B) False



13. Flickr is an online content community for sharing videos.
  A) True
  B) False



14. Google+ is a social networking site that is designed to compete with Facebook.
  A) True
  B) False



15. Facebook is the most popular social media site on the Internet.
  A) True
  B) False



16. The BlackBerry was the first popular Internet-capable smartphone in the United States.
  A) True
  B) False



17. Apple sells 25 million tablets each year.
  A) True
  B) False



18. MMORPG stands for “massively multiplayer online role-playing game.”
  A) True
  B) False



19. The 1996 Telecommunications Act encouraged mergers and joint ventures among phone companies and cable operators.
  A) True
  B) False



20. Google is a subsidiary of YouTube.
  A) True
  B) False



21. Amazon is the world’s largest e-commerce store.
  A) True
  B) False



22. Facebook uses profile information to deliver targeted and personalized ads to its users.
  A) True
  B) False



23. Cookies are files that allow a Web site owner to chart the computer user’s movements within the Web site and collect other information about the user.
  A) True
  B) False



24. Most Web sites follow an “opt-in” data policy when collecting information from online consumers.
  A) True
  B) False



25. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that efforts to ban indecent and obscene material on the Web through the Communications Decency Act of 1996 were unconstitutional.
  A) True
  B) False



26. The Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 requires schools and libraries that receive federal funds for Internet access to filter out obscene, pornographic, or harmful content Web sites.
  A) True
  B) False



27. Linux is an example of open-source software.
  A) True
  B) False



28. According to the textbook, which of the following is not a big question about the future of the Internet?
  A) Who will have access to the Internet?
  B) Does copyright law apply on the Internet?
  C) Will there be more video games online?
  D) Should there be limits on personal data gathering?
  E) Should we be allowed to share anything on the Internet?



29. What was the original motivation for developing the Internet?
  A) Technical innovation
  B) Entrepreneurial ambition
  C) Military-government project
  D) Popular demand for a more democratic medium of communication
  E) Desire for a new toy or “novelty”



30. Which of the following statements about the Internet is not true?
  A) One of the goals for its creation and early development was computer time-sharing.
  B) It is a hierarchical network where some have the power to kick others off the network.
  C) By 2014 about 87 percent of all U.S. adults were Internet users.
  D) The development of microprocessors and fiber-optic technology was necessary for the Internet to develop into a marketable medium.
  E) In its development stage, universities, government research labs, and corporations involved with high-tech products were the Internet’s primary users.



31. Which two developments were key to the Internet’s marketability?
  A) Microprocessors and fiber-optic cable
  B) ARPAnet and microprocessors
  C) ARPAnet and digitization
  D) E-commerce and distributed networks
  E) Moore’s Law and the World Wide Web



32. The World Wide Web was developed in _______.
  A) the late 1980s
  B) 1993
  C) the late 1990s
  D) 2000
  E) 2007



33. What is the difference between the Internet and the Web?
  A) Both are competing computer programs; the Web is the more popular one.
  B) The Internet is international; the Web is local.
  C) The Internet is a system of linked computers; the Web is a system of linked satellites.
  D) The Internet is the older version of the Web.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



34. The data-linking feature that allows Internet users to skip directly from a highlighted word to a related file in another computer system is called _______.
  A) hypertext
  B) convergence
  C) spamming
  D) Net shorthand
  E) e-mail



35. Which invention brought the Internet to mass audiences?
  A) Web browsers
  B) Search engines
  C) 56K modems
  D) E-mail
  E) Computer bulletin boards



36. By 2014, what percentage of American households had broadband Internet connections?
  A) 35 percent
  B) About 50 percent
  C) About 70 percent
  D) 80 percent
  E) None of the above options is correct.



37. Today’s major ISPs include all except which of the following?
  A) Verizon
  B) Comcast
  C) AT&T
  D) Google
  E) Time Warner Cable



38. The Huffington Post is a leading _______.
  A) mash-up video
  B) Wiki Web site
  C) fundraising tool
  E) blog



39. Which of the following statements about Wiki Web sites is true?
  A) A small group of people closely guard the posting of information to Wiki Web sites.
  B) Wiki Web sites peaked in the early 1990s, but are now irrelevant.
  C) The most notable example of a Wiki Web site is Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia that is mostly written by users.
  D) Information on Wiki Web sites is highly reliable and always accurate.
  E) All of the options are correct.



40. Content communities on the Web include which of the following?
  A) FanFiction.net
  B) YouTube
  C) Flickr
  D) Vimeo
  E) All of the options are correct.



41. According to the textbook, what is the most popular social networking site?
  A) Twitter
  B) Google+
  C) MySpace
  D) Facebook
  E) eBay



42. What service was launched in 2011 to compete against Facebook?
  A) Google+
  B) Yahoo!
  C) Tumblr
  D) MySpace
  E) Twitter



43. Second Life is an example of a(n) _______.
  A) smartphone
  B) virtual social world
  C) Web browser
  D) ISP
  E) Wiki Web site



44. According to the textbook, which of the following technological advances have contributed to the rise of media convergence?
  A) The development of wireless networks, making it easier for people to access the Internet almost anywhere
  B) Broadband Internet connections, which improved the multimedia capabilities of computers
  C) The development of Internet-capable cell phones
  D) The rise of the personal computer industry in the mid-1970s
  E) All of the options are correct.



45. Which one of the following is an example of media convergence?
  A) The tendency of news media to focus on local stories
  B) The use of tablets to access different forms of traditional media, like books and movies
  C) The theory that there are more and more media outlets
  D) The way media coverage tends to follow a mob mentality in reporting
  E) The idea that every media format will eventually be replaced by another



46. Which one of the following statements about media convergence is not true?
  A) Consumers can now access television shows, newspapers, and books on their computers.
  B) Convergence took off at the same time as the rise of the personal computer industry in the 1970s.
  C) Consumers now have the ability to access Internet-distributed content through their television sets.
  D) Consumers often use more than one device to access media content.
  E) All of the options are correct.



47. Which one of the following statements about Apple’s iPad is true?
  A) It solely functions as a device for reading e-books.
  B) It has been Apple’s fastest-growing product line, and newer versions include things like cameras and faster graphics.
  C) The Apple iPad will probably not have any competition from other companies/devices in the near future.
  D) The iPad functions like a larger iPod shuffle.
  E) You have to attach a mouse and keyboard to the iPad in order to use it.



48. By 2014, about how many apps were available for Apple devices?
  A) 35,000
  B) 100,000
  C) 375,000
  D) 750,000
  E) 1,100,000



49. Apple’s response to which of the following established the new media economics?
  A) Napster
  B) Facebook
  C) Google+
  D) AOL
  E) All of the options are correct.



50. Hypertext inventor Tim Berners-Lee published an article in 2001 that introduced the idea of the _______.
  A) World Wide Web
  B) voice recognition assistant
  C) Semantic Web
  D) ISP
  E) smartphone



51. While no one owns the Internet, some businesses have had commercial success controlling parts of the Internet experience. Which of the following endeavors has/have been commercially successful?
  A) Providing physical access to the Internet through phone, cable, and satellite links
  B) Selling advertising space on the Internet
  C) Designing and providing programs that allow users to network with others over the Internet
  D) Designing and running directories and search engines
  E) All of the options are correct.



52. Yahoo!’s business method has been to make itself an all-purpose entry point, or _______, to the Internet.
  A) ISP
  B) algorithm
  C) Web browser
  D) portal
  E) search engine



53. Why did AOL begin losing customers in the early 2000s?
  A) It didn’t provide instant messaging.
  B) It couldn’t keep up with the advent of broadband Internet connections.
  C) It didn’t screen out pornographic sites.
  D) It merged with Time Warner.
  E) It merged with Google.



54. Which statement about the business model of Google is true?
  A) Google makes the majority of its money from subscription fees.
  B) Google makes the majority of its money from pay-per-click advertisements.
  C) Google is a nonprofit organization dedicated to universal access to information.
  D) The majority of Google’s revenue comes from selling its cloud-based word processing program.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



55. Which of the following statements about targeted advertising is not true?
  A) It is a passing fad because it is unpopular with advertisers and generates very little revenue.
  B) It is a big part of the revenue of sites like Google and Facebook.
  C) Some versions read your e-mail messages to find key words that trigger specific ads.
  D) It may undermine the role of search engines to provide neutral access to information.
  E) It may turn search engines into ad brokers.



56. What is spyware and what does it do?
  A) It is a way for the government to figure out if you are accessing pornography online.
  B) It was software developed by the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects for spying on Russia.
  C) It is a computer program that lets you access secret information from sources like WikiLeaks.
  D) It is a computer program that is secretly bundled with other software that allows someone to collect private information.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



57. Which of the following is not a threat to privacy of personal information on the Internet?
  A) Government surveillance
  B) Data mining
  C) Cookies
  D) Digital archiving
  E) Online fraud



58. Which of the following best describes an “opt-in” Internet policy?
  A) A policy that assumes a Web site has the right to collect and share your information
  B) A policy of inserting spyware on unsuspecting computers
  C) A policy whereby consumers have to give their consent before a Web site can collect any browsing history data
  D) A policy favored by marketers and data-mining corporations
  E) A policy of tricking search engines into including Web sites in their search results



59. The law that grants sweeping powers to law-enforcement agencies to intercept individuals’ online communications, including e-mail messages and browsing records, is the _______.
  A) Communications Decency Act
  B) Telecommunications Act
  D) Child Online Protection Act
  E) Children’s Internet Protection Act



60. A form of Internet identity theft involving phony e-mail messages asking customers to update their credit card numbers, account passwords, and other personal information is called _______.
  A) spamming
  B) data-mining
  C) targeting
  D) open sourcing
  E) phishing



61. What does the term digital divide refer to?
  A) The ability of the rich to have access to the latest information technology while the poor do not.
  B) The length of time it takes for messages to travel between two continents.
  C) The competition between software companies.
  D) The programming gap between using a Microsoft operating system and a system like Linux.
  E) The difference in quality between an analog and a digital recording.



62. According to the American Library Association, what are the limitations of trying to protect children from inappropriate material on the Internet?
  A) It’s annoying to have to disable the filters every time an adult wants to access that material.
  B) There is no way to filter out all illegal content but still allow access to constitutionally protected materials.
  C) Current filtering software doesn’t block enough material.
  D) There isn’t enough federal funding for all schools and libraries to have the filtering software.
  E) There are no limitations.



63. Which of the following statements about Linux software is true?
  A) It’s free.
  B) Many people have contributed to its development.
  C) It is most often found on operating servers rather than PC desktops.
  D) Linus Torvalds established it in 1991.
  E) All of the options are correct.



64. Designed by the U.S. Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, the original Internet was called _________________________.



65. _________________________ is made of thin glass bundles that transmit thousands of messages simultaneously via laser light.



66. Invented in the 1980s, the _________________________ is the most popular part of the Internet and is essentially the navigation system for it.



67. HTML stands for hypertext _________________________ language.



68. Web navigation software packages such as Firefox and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer are known as _________________________.



69. ISP stands for Internet _________________________ provider.



70. The easiest way to communicate over the Internet in real time is IM, or _________________________.



71. _________________________ contain articles in chronological, journal-like form, often with reader comments and links to other articles on the Web.



72. YouTube is an example of an online video _________________________ community.



73. The Kindle Fire and iPad are examples of touchscreen _________________________.



74. Apple’s voice-recognition software, Siri, is an example of the _________________________.



75. The socioeconomic disparity between those who do and those who do not have access to digital technology and media such as the Internet is sometimes referred to as the _________________________.



Use the following to answer questions 76-80:



Selecting from the following list of terms, match the description with the best answer. Some terms may be used more than once or not at all.

A. Fiber-optic cable
B. World Wide Web
C. Social media site




76. Written code that creates Web pages and links



77. Thin glass bundles capable of transmitting thousands of messages



78. A site where you can upload photos, share interests, and post messages to friends



79. Facebook



80. The most frequently visited region of the Internet



Use the following to answer questions 81-86:



Select from the following list of terms to match the description with the best answer. Some terms may be used more than once or not at all.

  1. Twitter
  2. Digital divide
  3. 2010 net neutrality rules
  4. Opt-in policy
  5. Internet service provider



81. A procedure whereby Web sites ask for your explicit permission before they can collect browsing history or other data



82. A microblogging service



83. A company that provides access to the Internet



84. An FCC plan twice rejected by federal courts



85. AOL



86. A term that describes the gap between the information “haves” and “have-nots”



87. Name a group that worked to establish the early Internet. Explain the motivation for developing the Internet.



88. Many experts agree that one of the major characteristics that make the Internet unique is that it cannot be centrally controlled. Explain why and how this came about.



89. What are the key issues involving ownership and control of the Internet?



90. Briefly describe how digital communication has progressed from e-mail.



91. What is social media? Give at least three examples.



92. Briefly explain how the converging of media content on the Internet, from movies to books to music, came about.



93. Why do consumer advocates tend to favor the “opt-in” policy and marketers the “opt-out” policy for the collection of browsing history data?




Answer Key


1. B
2. A
3. B
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. A
8. A
9. B
10. A
11. A
12. B
13. B
14. A
15. A
16. A
17. A
18. A
19. B
20. B
21. A
22. A
23. A
24. B
25. A
26. A
27. A
28. C
29. C
30. B
31. A
32. A
33. E
34. A
35. A
36. C
37. D
38. E
39. C
40. E
41. D
42. A
43. B
44. E
45. B
46. B
47. B
48. E
49. A
50. C
51. E
52. D
53. B
54. B
55. A
56. D
57. D
58. C
59. C
60. E
61. A
62. B
63. E
64. ARPAnet
65. Fiber-optic cable
66. World Wide Web
67. markup
68. browsers
69. service
70. instant messaging
71. Blogs
72. content
73. tablets
74. Semantic Web
75. digital divide
76. D
77. A
78. C
79. C
80. B
81. D
82. A
83. E
84. C
85. E
86. B


Chapter 4- Sound Recording and Popular Music

1. Thomas Edison made his first sound recordings on a cylinder wrapped in tinfoil.
  A) True
  B) False



2. The word phonograph comes from the Latin words phone and graph, which put together mean “recorded speaking.”
  A) True
  B) False



3. Thomas Edison initially expected his new phonograph to be used as a kind of telephone answering machine.
  A) True
  B) False



4. Edison’s early cylinder recordings were made out of durable vinyl.
  A) True
  B) False



5. Unlike Edison’s phonograph, Emile Berliner’s gramophone played flat disks.
  A) True
  B) False



6. One advantage of polyvinyl records over shellac records is that they were less likely to break.
  A) True
  B) False



7. A war among vinyl recording disk formats in the late 1940s and early 1950s resulted in the 45-rpm record format being used exclusively for the release of album music collections.
  A) True
  B) False



8. The Japanese developed audiotape after World War II.
  A) True
  B) False



9. “Home dubbing” caused the commercial sale of record albums to grow in the 1970s.
  A) True
  B) False



10. Until the invention of digital recording, records were made using an analog recording process.
  A) True
  B) False



11. Compact discs hit the market in the early 1980s, and by 2000 their sales were still lagging way behind the albums and cassette tapes most people were familiar with.
  A) True
  B) False



12. A key factor in the success of the MP3 format is its ability to send or receive music without having to compress sound.
  A) True
  B) False



13. The music industry has successfully hindered peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, which enable free music file-sharing.
  A) True
  B) False



14. The music industry—especially major labels—ultimately embraced the MP3 format by supporting services like iTunes.
  A) True
  B) False



15. Streaming music services eliminate the physical ownership of music in favor of access to music.
  A) True
  B) False



16. In the 1920s, many radio stations went off the air because they couldn’t afford to pay for the rights to broadcast recorded music.
  A) True
  B) False



17. The popularity of the jukebox caused record sales to drop sharply in the 1930s.
  A) True
  B) False



18. Competition from TV in the 1950s helped the radio and recording industries become allies.
  A) True
  B) False



19. Blues music originated in the urban taverns of Southern California.
  A) True
  B) False



20. Sometimes called the first integrationist music, rock and roll blurred all sorts of cultural, class, and geographic boundaries.
  A) True
  B) False



21. Cleveland deejay Alan Freed helped popularize black music with white audiences.
  A) True
  B) False



22. Elvis Presley created the sound called rockabilly.
  A) True
  B) False



23. In the late 1950s, singer Little Richard stopped performing rock and roll because he believed it was the “devil’s music.”
  A) True
  B) False



24. In the 1950s, it was common practice for white artists to cover songs first recorded by black performers.
  A) True
  B) False



25. Payola is the practice of record promoters paying deejays to play certain songs on the air.
  A) True
  B) False



26. The first congressional hearings on radio payola started soon after the quiz-show scandals in television.
  A) True
  B) False



27. The record industry groomed singers Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard as replacements for rebellious rock and rollers like Frankie Avalon and Ricky Nelson.
  A) True
  B) False



28. The Rolling Stones emphasized chord-driven rhythms in their music, while the Beatles stressed melody.
  A) True
  B) False



29. British rock-and-roll groups such as the Beatles drew much of their inspiration from black artists.
  A) True
  B) False



30. TV host Ed Sullivan promoted the career of the Beatles, but he considered the Rolling Stones “bad boys.”
  A) True
  B) False



31. Motown music groups had a more stylized, softer sound than the funk music of James Brown and Wilson Pickett.
  A) True
  B) False



32. Folk is considered the sound of social activism.
  A) True
  B) False



33. Punk rock emerged in the 1970s partly to protest the commercialism of the recording industry.
  A) True
  B) False



34. Grunge music became a significant form of rock and roll in 1992 as a result of a breakthrough album by Nirvana.
  A) True
  B) False



35. Gangster rap developed in the 1980s partly to tell the truth about gang violence in American culture.
  A) True
  B) False



36. Oligopoly is the term for a business situation in which a few firms control most of an industry; film studios and record labels are examples.
  A) True
  B) False



37. Universal Music Group controls nearly 20 percent of the U.S. market share of the recording industry.
  A) True
  B) False



38. Because they are smaller, independent record companies are reluctant to invest in commercially unproven artists.
  A) True
  B) False



39. Independent labels produce only about 2 percent of all recordings.
  A) True
  B) False



40. About 40 percent of all music recordings purchased in the United States are digital downloads.
  A) True
  B) False



41. Most of the money earned from the sale of a CD goes to the royalties paid to the artist.
  A) True
  B) False



42. The advance money that a recording artist receives from his or her music label is ultimately a loan, and the artist must repay the label before receiving any additional royalties made on sales.
  A) True
  B) False



43. Songwriters and publishers receive a mechanical royalty each time a recording of one of their copyrighted songs is sold.
  A) True
  B) False



44. Recording artists receive about one-third of the retail price of a CD in royalties.
  A) True
  B) False



45. Internet radio stations pay a licensing fee to broadcast copyrighted music.
  A) True
  B) False



46. Established music artist Amanda Palmer built her online community and sells music directly to fans through her personal Web site.
  A) True
  B) False



47. A major difference between sound recordings made by Emile Berliner and those made by Thomas Edison was that ______.
  A) Berliner’s disks were flat
  B) Edison’s disks could be mass produced
  C) Edison’s disks were coated with lamp black
  D) Berliner’s disks were made of vinyl
  E) None of the above options is correct.



48. Emile Berliner’s invention of ______ was significant because it allowed for mass reproduction of sound recordings and for labeling, which enabled the development of a star system.
  A) wax cylinders
  B) lamp black
  C) flat disks
  D) audiotape
  E) 331/3 rpm records



49. Magnetic audiotape and tape players first caught on in the ______.
  A) 1950s
  B) 1940s
  C) 1910s
  D) 1890s
  E) 1960s



50. Under the compromise reached by CBS and RCA in 1953, the standard for record singles became the ______ format.
  A) 331/3-rpm
  B) 45-rpm
  C) 78-rpm
  D) CD
  E) MP3



51. In 1958, ______ allowed for the recording of two separate tracks of sound, which could be mixed together.
  A) digital recording
  B) gramophones
  C) MP3s
  D) analog recording
  E) stereo



52. The biggest seller of recorded music in the United States is ______.
  A) BMG Music Service
  B) Best Buy
  C) Walmart
  D) Target
  E) iTunes



53. Which of the following is true about the MP3 music file format?
  A) It creates music files that are very large and slow to download.
  B) It was very important in the fight against the pirating of recorded music.
  C) It makes recording, transferring, and downloading music quicker and easier.
  D) It hasn’t been popular with consumers because MP3 players break easily.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



54. Which of the following are ways the music industry tries to fight the illegal downloading of music?
  A) It has asked P2P sites like Grokster and Kazaa to pay them a monthly fee.
  B) It has embraced ways for consumers to pay for legal downloading of music.
  C) It has convinced several major Internet service providers to help identify customers who may be illegally downloading music.
  D) Both B (“embraced legal downloading”) and C (convinced “Internet service providers identify illegal downloaders”) are correct.
  E) Both A (asked “P2P sites to pay a monthly fee”) and B (“embraced legal downloading”) are correct.



55. Which of the following is an example of streaming music?
  A) Music services available on long airplane flights
  B) Downloading music to your computer or portable music player like an iPod
  C) Music you hear on the radio
  D) An online music service that lets you listen to music without physically owning the songs
  E) Music that has been illegally downloaded



56. Which of the following does not fall into the category of pop music?
  A) Rock
  B) Country
  C) Classical
  D) Hip-hop
  E) Blues



57. Which of the following boundaries did rock and roll not blur in the 1950s?
  A) The country and the city
  B) Sacred and secular
  C) Masculinity and femininity
  D) North and South
  E) Old and young



58. In the mid-1950s, which artist had record sales second only to Elvis Presley?
  A) Fats Domino
  B) Pat Boone
  C) Little Richard
  D) Ray Charles
  E) Bob Dylan



59. Little Richard became the first African American artist to chart higher with his own song than a white cover artist because ______.
  A) he cleaned up the music and lyrics so white audiences wouldn’t be offended
  B) he pretended to be white
  C) nobody cared about race anymore
  D) he wrote and performed a song with lyrics and a style that white artists like Pat Boone couldn’t imitate
  E) he made a deal with white cover artists so they would respect his creative efforts



60. The turning point that led to the end of major record labels employing white performers to cover black rock-and-roll artists’ songs occurred with which event?
  A) Ray Charles had a No. 1 hit covering a country song in 1962.
  B) The Crew Cuts covered “Sh-Boom” in 1954.
  C) Little Richard had a hit, “Tutti-Frutti,” in 1956.
  D) Jimi Hendrix covered Bob Dylan’s “All Along the Watchtower” in 1968.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



61. In the 1950s, disc jockey Alan Freed attempted to make rock-and-roll music more acceptable to mainstream audiences by ______.
  A) playing original rhythm-and-blues music and black versions of early rock and roll
  B) playing rhythm-and-blues songs as they were covered by white musicians
  C) developing formatted stations that targeted specific audiences with specific types of music
  D) developing payola practices that guaranteed the inclusion of particular songs on mainstream music stations
  E) having white musicians cover sacred gospel songs for mainstream audiences



62. Conservative social forces in the late 1950s pointed to Jerry Lee Lewis as an example of ______.
  A) the new clean-cut musicians who were promoted by Dick Clark
  B) a rock and roller who was considered to be “white trash”
  C) how musicians could be corrupted by payola
  D) how a young man from the South could realize the American Dream
  E) how black musicians were inciting riots



63. The success of British groups in America in the 1960s led to ______.
  A) the verification that the performers themselves could write and produce popular music well
  B) the German Invasion, led by artists like the Scorpions
  C) the acceptance of later British artists like OneRepublic and Radiohead
  D) the sale of American popular music recordings in Europe
  E) None of the above options is correct.



64. Folk music ______.
  A) is mostly acoustic music that is historically popular with authority figures
  B) is a genre with a rich history of protest lyrics and a focus on social and political issues
  C) used electric guitars and loud drum solos to establish its distinctive sound
  D) was at the heart of the payola scandals of the 1950s
  E) has its roots as music composed and written down by so-called “Tin Pan Alley”



65. The album that broke grunge music into the American mainstream was ______.
  A) Nevermind by Nirvana
  B) Thug Life by Tupac Shakur
  C) Raising Hell by Run-DMC
  D) Silence Yourself by The Savages
  E) Dookie by Green Day



66. Which of the following statements about hip-hop music is true?
  A) It is a broad description of music and culture that includes rapping, sampling/cutting, and deejays.
  B) It provides a way for artists to debate issues of gender, race, class, violence, and drugs.
  C) It has been criticized for lyrics that degrade women and glorify violence.
  D) Some of its most popular artists include Lupe Fiasco and YG.
  E) All of the options are correct.



67. Which of the following is the correct chronological order (oldest to newest) in which musical genres first became popular?
  A) Hip-hop, rock, punk, jazz, grunge
  B) Jazz, punk, hip-hop, rock, grunge
  C) Punk, jazz, grunge, hip-hop, rock
  D) Jazz, rock, punk, hip-hop, grunge
  E) Grunge, hip-hop, punk, rock, jazz



68. Sugarhill Gang’s 1979 hit “Rapper’s Delight” ______.
  A) became the first No. 1 hip-hop album on the popular charts
  B) infused hip-hop with a political take on ghetto life
  C) sampled part of another song, a practice common to hip-hop
  D) was part of the subgenre known as gangster rap
  E) was covered more successfully by white artists



69. The term ______ refers to the economic situation in which a few firms dominate an industry.
  A) monopoly
  B) corporate scaling economies
  C) oligarchy
  D) limited competition
  E) oligopoly



70. Which of the following large corporations is not one of the major firms controlling national and international music distribution today?
  A) RCA
  B) Sony Music Entertainment
  C) Warner Music Group
  D) Universal Music Group
  E) None of the above options is correct.



71. In economic terms, the recording industry is best described as ______.
  A) a monopoly
  B) a big, friendly, family business
  C) an oligopoly
  D) alternative-music heaven
  E) cluttered with indie record labels



72. An A&R (artist & repertoire) agent typically ______.
  A) makes decisions about the final sound of a recording
  B) listens to demo tapes and scouts talent for record labels
  C) chooses studio recording equipment and manages audio technicians
  D) makes distribution arrangements with major retailers
  E) All of the options are correct.



73. Which of the following is not one of the ways record companies, composers, and recording artists make their money?
  A) The direct sale of CDs and digital downloads at retail stores
  B) Charging fees to radio stations that play their music
  C) The illegal sharing of songs via computer files
  D) Selling albums and songs on sites like iTunes and Amazon
  E) All of the options are correct.



74. Which statement best describes the uneasiness between the commercial and artistic sides of the music business?
  A) Record labels only want cookie-cutter artists, but recording artists don’t want to compromise their own “sound.”
  B) An artist who criticizes commercial culture might need to sign with a major label and become part of that culture in order to reach a larger audience.
  C) Record labels rely on the Internet to promote artists, but recording artists feel that this practice is too commercial.
  D) Artists want to set their own prices, but record labels are unwilling to allow artists too much freedom.
  E) All of the options are correct.



75. Which of the following statements accurately represents how independent musicians use the Internet?
  A) The Internet is a big obstacle for new musicians because they lose money on illegal song downloads.
  B) The Internet doesn’t really have much impact on new or independent musicians.
  C) The Internet provides an inexpensive way for new artists to create a fan base using social networking sites.
  D) No musicians have been able to use the Internet to launch a mainstream music career.
  E) The Internet is the only way for independent musicians to launch a mainstream music career.



76. Which of the following is not an example of the Web sites that are increasingly popular places for fans to sample and discover new music?
  A) Google
  B) Pandora
  C) Facebook
  D) YouTube
  E) Rhapsody



77. Which of the following statements about the music industry and the Internet since the year 2000 is true?
  A) Musicians and music companies are afraid to use the Internet to market new music.
  B) No one will spend money for music if they can download it for free.
  C) Artists who use the Internet to generate a fan base can improve their chances of being signed by a major label.
  D) No musicians have experimented with bypassing record labels and selling their music directly on the Internet.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



78. Which statement best describes the relationship between small independent music labels and the huge major music labels?
  A) Each survives only by trying to put the other out of business.
  B) The major labels are better able than indies to use downloads and streaming.
  C) Independent labels often rely on major labels for distribution.
  D) Independents distribute only mainstream music while the majors cover niche markets and discover new talent.
  E) There are no independent labels left because they’ve all been purchased or run out of business by the three major labels.



79. Which of the following statements is true about the attempts to rein in popular music?
  A) Most attempts happened in the 1950s and 1960s.
  B) Concerns over lyrics in the mid-1980s had no effect on the music industry.
  C) Before the British Invasion, there were no clashes between older and younger generations over music.
  D) Middle-class white adults embraced gangster rap as an excellent way for their children to learn about inner-city life.
  E) None of the above options is correct.



80. Senate hearings on the music industry in the 1980s led to ______.
  A) lower prices for music
  B) higher royalty rates for artists
  C) monopolistic control of the music industry
  D) music advisory labels
  E) the legalization of payola



81. Over the last century, the music industry ______.
  A) has had a history of reproducing and reinforcing racial, gender, and other stereotypes
  B) challenged racial, gender, and other stereotypes
  C) encouraged rebellion and confrontation with authority
  D) toned down content in order to increase profits
  E) All of the options are correct.



82. In the 1940s, _____________________ originated as magnetized strands.



83. A(n) _________________________ recording is made by capturing the fluctuations of the original sound waves and storing those signals in record grooves or an audiotape’s continuous stream of magnetized particles.



84. A _________________________ recording is made by turning sound waves into a series of on-off pulses stored as numerical code.



85. Bing Crosby established himself as one of the first _________________________, or singers of pop standards.



86. Before rock and roll, the music industry distinguished pop charts—featuring mostly white music—from R&B, or _________________________ charts—featuring mostly black music.



87. In the 1950s, songs recorded or performed by musicians who did not originally write or perform the music, were called _________________________; they were an attempt by white producers and artists to capitalize on popular songs by blacks.



88. _________________________ is a style of rap music that depicts the hardships of urban life and sometimes glorifies the violent style of street gangs.



89. Music talent scouts, or _________________________, discover, develop, and sometimes manage performers.



90. Unauthorized online file sharing is known as __________________.



Use the following to answer questions 91-99:



Match the items with the names with which they are most closely identified.

A. Buddy Holly
B. Thomas Edison
C. Little Richard
D. Elvis Presley
E. Bing Crosby
F. Chuck Berry
G. Alan Freed
H. Emile Berliner
I. Jerry Lee Lewis




91. Flat disk



92. Earliest phonograph



93. Crooner



94. Drag queen



95. Payola



96. Jailed



97. Drafted into the Army



98. Married young cousin



99. Died in plane crash



100. Why did Emile Berliner’s flat disk replace Thomas Edison’s wax cylinder, and why did this technical reconfiguration matter in the history of mass media?



101. Describe one way in which the convergence of the recording industry and the Internet has changed the industry. Explain how these changes may be positive, negative, or both.



102. How did sound recording survive the coming of radio?



103. Why did cover music figure so prominently in the development of rock and roll and the recording industry in the 1950s?



104. How has the way people listen to music changed in the last decade or so? How might those changes affect the kinds of music that artists make? What does that mean for music as a part of culture?



105. Briefly explain how rock and roll muddied the waters of the American cultural landscape in the 1950s.



106. Why did hip-hop and punk rock emerge as significant musical forms in the late 1970s and 1980s? What do their developmental paths have in common, and how are they different?



107. Is it healthy or detrimental that a few large international companies control so much of the recording industry? Explain.



108. Why are independent labels important to the music industry today?




Answer Key


1. A
2. B
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. B
12. B
13. A
14. A
15. A
16. A
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. A
21. A
22. B
23. A
24. A
25. A
26. A
27. B
28. A
29. A
30. A
31. A
32. A
33. A
34. A
35. A
36. A
37. B
38. B
39. B
40. A
41. B
42. A
43. A
44. B
45. A
46. A
47. A
48. C
49. B
50. B
51. E
52. E
53. C
54. D
55. D
56. C
57. E
58. B
59. D
60. A
61. A
62. B
63. A
64. B
65. A
66. E
67. D
68. C
69. E
70. A
71. C
72. B
73. C
74. B
75. C
76. A
77. C
78. C
79. E
80. D
81. E
82. audiotape
83. analog
84. digital
85. crooners
86. “race”
87. cover music
88. Gangster rap
89. A&R agents
90. online piracy
91. H
92. B
93. E
94. C
95. G
96. F
97. D
98. I
99. A



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