Theories of Psychotherapy & Counseling Concepts and Cases 5th Edition, International Edition by Richard S Sharf – Test Bank


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Theories of Psychotherapy & Counseling Concepts and Cases 5th Edition, International Edition by Richard S Sharf – Test Bank

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  1. Freud’s university training was in
    1. (30)


  1. Freud’s first work in psychiatry was with patients suffering from
    1. anxiety disorders.
    2. borderline disorders.
    3. hysterical disorders. (31)
    4. narcissistic disorders.


  1. Thanatos refers not only to an instinct for death, but also to
    1. aggressive drives. (33)
    2. actualizing drives.
    3. sexual drives.
    4. unconscious drives.


  1. According to Freud, events that can be remembered with some effort, but not immediately, arise from the
    1. collective unconscious.
    2. (33)


  1. According to Freud, forgotten memories that are frightening are likely to be found in the
    1. (34)


  1. Interpretation of dream material allows the psychoanalyst to
    1. bring unconscious material into conscious awareness. (34)
    2. bring unconscious material into the preconscious.
    3. explore the unconscious.
    4. explore the preconscious.


  1. At birth the infant is all
    1. false self.
    2. (34)
    3. all of the above.


  1. Which of the following is identified with the id?
    1. identity
    2. conscious
    3. preconscious
    4. unconscious (34)




  1. Anticathexis refers to the
    1. ego’s control over the id. (35)
    2. ego’s control over the superego.
    3. superego’s control over the ego.
    4. superego’s control over the false self.


  1. When Barbara follows her parents’ example in being kind to her baby sister, the following is being formed:
    1. ego ideal (35).


  1. According to Freud, Ben, who is angry at his brother and is afraid that he might push him into a busy highway, is demonstrating
    1. generalized anxiety.
    2. moral anxiety.
    3. neurotic anxiety. (35)
    4. reality anxiety.


  1. If Bernice can’t remember being sexually abused as a child, she may be using the defense mechanism called
    1. reaction formation.
    2. rationalization
    3. (36)


  1. Picked on constantly at school, Bruce would come home and throw his cat against the wall, thus ____________ his anger. Pick the appropriate psychoanalytic term.
    1. tantruming
    2. displacing (36)
    3. intellectualizing
    4. repressing


  1. Bill, a 7 year-old boy, wears a football jacket with the logo of his favorite football team to school every day, and feels bigger and stronger because of this. Bill is illustrating the defense mechanism of
    1. (37)


  1. During his first day of kindergarten, Basil curls up into a ball, cries, and sucks his thumb, illustrating
    1. reaction formation.
    2. (33)


  1. Carla explains patiently to her boy friend why they should continue to see each other despite his continual angry protest about her dating other men. Her feelings for him are becoming weaker, yet she tells him that she believes in the philosophy of freed
    1. (37)
    2. reaction formation.


  1. The stage of development in which children develop the most bodily control is the
    1. anal stage. (38)
    2. genital stage.
    3. oral stage.
    4. phallic stage.


  1. The earliest stage of development is the
    1. anal stage.
    2. genital stage.
    3. phallic stage.
    4. oral stage. (37)


  1. The focus of sexual energy toward others rather than oneself occurs in the
    1. anal stage.
    2. latency stage.
    3. oral stage.
    4. genital stage. (38)


  1. The significance of the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages is that they
    1. are important to all psychoanalysts.
    2. occur in no specific sequence.
    3. refer to specific psychological disorders.
    4. represent the importance of biological drives in determining personality. (38)




  1. Anna Freud’s concept of developmental lines refers to the gradual development of the
    1. (39)
    2. genital stage.


  1. Which one of the following is considered an ego psychologist?
    1. Donald Winnicott.
    2. Erik Erikson (39)
    3. Carl Jung
    4. Sigmund Freud


  1. According to Erik Erikson the development of trust in an individual begins in Freud’s
    1. anal stage.
    2. genital stage.
    3. oral stage. (39)
    4. phallic stage.


  1. A key stage for Erik Erikson that takes place in adolescence is
    1. identity versus role confusion. (39)
    2. industry versus despair.
    3. integrity versus guilt.
    4. intimacy versus isolation.


  1. Erikson’s stage of trust vs. mistrust corresponds with one of Freud’s stages?
    1. anal stage
    2. genital stage
    3. oral stage (40)
    4. phallic stage


  1. Object relations theorists focus on how individuals
    1. deal with id impulses.
    2. handle id-ego conflict.
    3. separate from their mothers and become independent persons. (41)
    4. develop the bipolar self.


  1. Vivian, due to her mother’s excellent child-raising, gradually becomes a self sufficient, independent person. This observation is most likely to be made by which of these schools of psychoanalysis?
    1. drive theory
    2. ego psychology
    3. object relations (41)
    4. self psychology


  1. Barry, 8-years-old, acts in age appropriate ways, not as his mother demands. According to Donald Winnicott, he is developing his
    1. false self.
    2. true self. (42)
    3. superiority complex.
    4. super ego.


  1. According to Donald Winnicott, when children act as they are expected to by others, rather than act as they want, then they may develop
    1. a false self. (42)
    2. a true self.
    3. an inferiority complex.
    4. separation anxiety.


  1. Donald Winnicott believes that in early infancy, infants must have their needs met by their mother, but later they must be helped by their mother to develop independence. This concept is called
    1. good-enough mothering. (42)


  1. According to Donald Winnicott, an object that can help children make the transition from a subjective view of self to being a person in the world, is
    1. a bottle.
    2. a sibling.
    3. a teddy bear. (42)
    4. a therapist.


  1. Object relations theorists focus on psychological problems that occur in the individual __________ adolescence.
    1. prior to (42)
    2. at the same time as
    3. after
    4. because of


  1. As defined by Otto Kernberg, splitting refers to
    1. keeping early memories outside of consciousness.
    2. keeping incompatible feelings separate from each other. (43)
    3. the gradual separation of the personality into two parts.
    4. the sudden emergence of traumatic memories into consciousness.


  1. The tension between not getting what you want and believing that your parents are wonderful is associated with the work of
    1. Anna Freud.
    2. Donald Winnicott.
    3. Heinz Kohut. (44)
    4. Sigmund Freud.


  1. The tension between not getting what you want and believing that your parents are wonderful is called
    1. the bipolar self. (44)
    2. the selfobject.
    3. transmuting internalizations.


  1. According to Heinz Kohut, the motivating organizer of development is
    1. the collective unconscious.
    2. the superego.
    3. (44)


  1. For Kohut, mirroring supports
    1. the development of the superego.
    2. the grandiose self. (44)
    3. the identity stage.
    4. the separation and individuation process.


  1. The concepts of id, ego, and superego were LEAST important for
    1. Anna Freud.
    2. Donald Winnicott.
    3. Heinz Kohut. (45)
    4. Sigmund Freud.


  1. A focus on intersubjectivity, the concept that both psychoanalyst and patient influence each other, is most closely identified with
    1. drive theory.
    2. ego psychology.
    3. object relations.
    4. relational psychoanalysis. (45)


  1. The concept of two-person psychology is most likely to be associated with
    1. drive theory.
    2. ego psychology.
    3. object relations.
    4. relational psychoanalysis. (45)


  1. Psychoanalysis can help patients get better by helping them to
    1. Resolve unconscious conflicts within themselves. (46)
    2. change their beliefs to change behavior.
    3. learn about their regression.
    4. understand their id.


  1. For psychoanalysts of all types, a significant therapeutic goal for patients is
    1. free association.
    2. resolving conflicts within themselves. (47)
    3. understanding the separation and individuation process.
    4. understanding splitting.


  1. Adapting in positive ways to the external world, is a therapeutic goal associated with
    1. ego psychology. (47)
    2. Freudian drive theory.
    3. object relations.
    4. self psychology.


  1. Traditional psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy are similar in that they both
    1. explore the impact of early childhood development. (48)
    2. have meetings 4 times a week with the patient.
    3. rely on free association as a primary technique.
    4. use a couch.




  1. Which of these forms of therapy is likely to be most expensive for the patient
    1. behavior therapy.
    2. cognitive therapy.
    3. (49)
    4. psychoanalytic psychotherapy.


  1. In psychoanalysis, forgetting appointments is an example of
    1. free association.
    2. (50)


  1. In psychoanalysis, the symbolic content of a dream refers to its
    1. archetypal content interpretations about archetypes.
    2. latent content, symbolic and unconscious motives in the dream. (51)
    3. manifest content, the dreams as the dreamer sees it.
    4. existential content.


  1. Charlene, having been ignored by her father when she was a small child, also feels angry at her psychoanalyst, whom she believes is ignoring her.  This is an example of
    1. (53)


  1. Identifying irrational feelings in the psychoanalytic therapist as they relate to the patient is associated with the concept of
    1. (54)
    2. the superego.


  1. Otto Kernberg’s term, transference psychosis, refers to the patient’s behavior toward the therapist that reflects
    1. behavior towards the therapist that includes unclear speech and description of hallucinations.
    2. behavior towards friends and family that includes unclear speech and description of hallucinations.
    3. the destructive relationship the patient had with parents. (53)
    4. free associations that are incoherent and non-productive.


  1. When being empathic, Heinz Kohut focuses on his patient’s
    1. concern about relationship’s with friends or family.
    2. early difficulties with self and others. (49)
    3. experiences in the session.
    4. separation from the family.


  1. Focusing on the developing interaction between mother and child is an indication that the therapist is using the point of view derived from
    1. Freudian drive theory.
    2. object relations.(41)
    3. self psychology.
    4. relational psychoanalysis.


  1. Focus on conflictual relationship in short term psychodynamic therapy has been the work of
    1. Anna Freud.
    2. (63)
    3. Sigmund Freud.


  1. “It seems to me that you want to be in a relationship where . . . ” is a statement that is most likely to be made by a psychodynamic therapist using
    1. Freud’s drive theory.
    2. ego psychology.
    3. Luborsky’s Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method. (63)
    4. self psychology.


  1. Relationship Episodes are likely to be used in psychodynamic therapy when _______________ is applied.
    1. Freud’s drive theory
    2. ego psychology
    3. Luborsky’s Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method (63)
    4. self psychology


  1. Treatment manuals are used in the application of _________  to psychoanalytic therapy.
    1. ego psychology
    2. Freudian drive theory
    3. Luborsky’s Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method (66)
    4. object relations psychology




  1. In psychoanalysis constructivism has had a major influence on a
    1. one person psychology.
    2. two person psychology. (66)
    3. three person psychology.
    4. five person psychology.


  1. In a long term study of psychoanalysis, Wallerstein reported that an important reason for therapeutic change in psychoanalysis was
    1. insight brought about by therapist interpretation of unconscious material
    2. insight brought about by therapist interpretation of counter transference issues
    3. the release of repressed material into consciousness
    4. willingness to change to please the therapist (68)


  1. The development of specific measurement instruments by psychoanalytic researchers help provides
    1. answers to whether or not psychoanalysis is superior to other therapies
    2. answers to whether or not psychoanalysis is superior to psychoanalytic psychotherapies
    3. explanations for positive change in psychoanalytic or psychodynamic treatment (69)
    4. explanations for the impact of splitting on psychotherapeutic change.


  1. Attachment theory studies concepts that are most similar to concepts in
    1. ego psychology.
    2. Freudian drive theory.
    3. object relations. (70)
    4. self psychology.


  1. Brief psychoanalytic therapy is typically this length.
    1. 1-5 sessions
    2. 12-40 sessions (63)
    3. 35-125 sessions
    4. 75-225 sessions


  1. Ainsworth identified 3 patterns of attachment in young children. Which of these is NOT a pattern of attachment?
    1. ambivalent
    2. individuation (70)
    3. avoidant
    4. secure


  1. The theory that has been subject to the most criticism for its treatment of the psychological development of women has been
    1. behavior therapy.
    2. gestalt therapy.
    3. Jungian therapy.
    4. psychoanalytic therapy. (71)


  1. Chodorow and some other critics of the psychoanalytic treatment of women’s development suggest that object relations theorists should focus on
    1. child-mother relationships.
    2. child-parent relationships. (72)
    3. penis envy.
    4. womb envy.


  1. The psychoanalytic theorist who was most interested in multicultural issues was
    1. Donald Winnicott.
    2. Erik Erikson. (72)
    3. Heinz Kohut.
    4. Sigmund Freud.


  1. As an example of recent work in multicultural issues as they affect psychoanalysts, researchers have studied
    1. the effect of the shadow archetype on psychoanalysis.
    2. inferiority and superiority in self-esteem across cultures.
    3. how skin color can effect the transference relationship. (72)
    4. meaningfulness in life as it applies to different cultures.


  1. Psychoanalysis can be criticized because of
    1. a tendency to make broad generalizations about women. (71)
    2. its recent failure to reach out to diverse populations.
    3. its failure to attend to early childhood development.
    4. its tendency to ignore group approaches to therapy.


  1. After six years of three times a week psychoanalytical therapy, Ellen becomes silent and less cooperative with her analyst than she had been before. Her analyst would most likely focus on her
    1. grandiose self.
    2. (50)




  1. A major goal of psychoanalysis is
    1. behavioral change.
    2. improved marital relationships.
    3. parental reconciliation.
    4. self understanding. (47)


  1. Harvey got angry at his psychoanalyst for no apparent reason. This is most likely and example of
    1. (53)


  1. Examining how a patient’s dream relates to a current problem would be called _______________ in psychoanalysis.
    1. countertransference
    2. transference
    3. interpretation (51)
    4. a relational response


  1. In psychoanalytic group therapy, some group leaders emphasize making interpretive comments about
    1. efforts by group members to achieve target behaviors.
    2. empathic relationships within the group.
    3. resistances and transference. (73)
    4. the group as a family system.



  1. Regarding the relationship between Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, which of the following is true?
    1. Both arrived at their theories independently.
    2. Freud was more complimentary of Adler than Adler was of Freud.
    3. Freud’s theory gave Adler a starting point for his own theory. (114)
    4. They reconciled in later life.


  1. The individual who was most responsible for advocating Adlerian therapy in America was
    1. Don Dinkmeyer.
    2. Harold Mosak.
    3. Richard Watts.
    4. Rudolf Dreikurs. (126)


  1. For Alfred Adler, an individual’s style of life began
    1. after the time a child entered school.
    2. in early childhood (before starting school). (126)
    3. in adolescence.
    4. in adulthood.


  1. An Adlerian therapist might view a patient’s major task in life as
    1. dealing with unconscious forces
    2. separating from parents
    3. transcending the Umwelt
    4. performing useful work in society (127)


  1. Which of these was not a major task, according to Alfred Adler, in developing one’s lifestyle?
    1. individuation (127)
    2. love
    3. occupation
    4. spiritual development


  1. According to Alfred Adler, an individual who continually argues with coworkers, may be expressing his lifestyle which may be derived from
    1. being attracted to his mother and angry at his father around the age of 4 or 5.
    2. being harassed and teased by 2 older brothers when in elementary school. (127)
    3. being in trouble with the law in high school, as a result of gang fights.
    4. being discriminated against by previous employers.


  1. Which of these is not a stage of the development of the Adlerian concept of social interest?
    1. aptitude
    2. ability
    3. oral (128)
    4. secondary dynamic characteristics


  1. According to Alfred Adler, the mother’s task is to
    1. develop a sense of cooperation and helpfulness in her child. (128)
    2. help the child become independent and separate from the parent.
    3. help the child to develop his or her unconscious.
    4. nurture the child and provide a feeling of being cared for.


  1. In his early work, Alfred Adler wrote about the importance of physical inferiority in forming later personality. This idea may have been influenced by
    1. his emphasis on the role of early events in the development of an individual’s lifestyle.
    2. his relationship with Sigmund Freud, and Freud’s emphasis on the role of child development in adult personality.
    3. his several severe illnesses and accidents when a child. (124, 129)
    4. Wilhelm Reich’s views on the influence of the body on personality.


  1. The striving for superiority, according to Alfred Adler, was a (an)
    1. boastful or arrogant style of life.
    2. natural and fundamental motivation of individuals. (129, 130)
    3. irresponsible way of behaving.
    4. expression of the conflict between the grandiose self and the idealized parent.


  1. According to Adler, which factor could have an influence on an individual’s style of life?
    1. birth order (130)
    2. masculine protest
    3. separation anxiety
    4. the shadow


  1. For Rudolf Dreikurs, the decision about whether counseling or psychotherapy was needed, was related to the need for changes in
    1. birth order.
    2. (131)
    3. social interest.
    4. the superiority complex.


  1. A common approach to assessment in Adlerian therapy is to
    1. assess the client’s life style. (133)
    2. assess the client’s attitudes and functions.
    3. explain the role of archetypes in therapy.
    4. explain the role of social interest in therapy.


  1. To picture oneself confronting someone who hurt us psychologically is to use the Adlerian technique of
    1. acting as if.
    2. avoiding the tar baby.
    3. creating images. (140)


  1. Which of these is LEAST likely to be of interest to an Adlerian therapist when assessing a client
    1. birth order.
    2. early recollections.
    3. family interactions.
    4. reports of early recollections. (122)


  1. In assessing a client’s problems, an Adlerian, more than other therapists, might say to the client
    1. “Would you please tell me the first thing that comes into your mind.”
    2. “Would you please tell me which behaviors you would like to change.”
    3. “Would you please tell me which feelings you would like to change.”
    4. “Would you try to recall your earliest memories for me.” (134)


  1. In Adlerian therapy, dreams may give the therapists clue’s to an individual’s
    1. birth order.
    2. life style. (135)
    3. separation anxiety.
    4. transference issues.




  1. Adlerian techniques tend to focus on client’s developing
    1. awareness of unconscious processes.
    2. inner strength.
    3. ways to change beliefs and take actions (139-142).


  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a basic mistake as described by Alfred Adler
    1. believing that you have to take advantage of others to get ahead.
    2. having a feeling of inferiority. (136)
    3. having faulty values.
    4. using words like “all” or “never”.


  1. Which of the following theorists discusses assessing those things that individuals do competently, as a part of the therapeutic process?
    1. Alfred Adler. (136)
    2. Anna Freud.
    3. Carl Jung.
    4. Sigmund Freud.


  1. Encouragement is a therapeutic technique used by
    1. Alfred Adler. (138)
    2. Anna Freud.
    3. Carl Jung.
    4. Sigmund Freud.


  1. When a therapist says to a patient, “I would like you to pretend that you are confident when you tell your roommate that you are gay,” the Adlerian therapist is using the technique of
    1. acting as if. (139)
    2. avoiding the tar baby.
    3. catching oneself.
    4. spitting in the clients soup.


  1. Which one of the following therapeutic techniques fits with Adlerian therapy?
    1. archetype analysis
    2. encouraging the patient to act out id impulses
    3. reflecting on the patient’s existence
    4. assigning homework (142)


  1. “When I was 4, I remember seeing a friend faint. Then I called for help and his mother came.” This information is gathered using an Adlerian assessment technique called
    1. creating images.
    2. early recollections. (134)
    3. task setting.


  1. Having a patient shift back and forth between negative and positive imagery is an example of the Adlerian technique called
    1. avoiding the tar baby.
    2. catching oneself.
    3. spitting in the clients soup..
    4. the push button technique. (141)


  1. Most Adlerian therapeutic techniques can best be described as
    1. action oriented. (142)
    2. focusing on early recollections.
    3. focusing on unresolved problems from the past.
    4. insight oriented.


  1. The case of Sheri reported by Peven and Shulman shows how
    1. depression can be improved by recalling early memories.
    2. early recollections can be repressed, and gradually revealed in therapy.
    3. early recollections change over time. (131, 132)
    4. early recollections remain constant over time.


  1. Whereas Carl Rogers empathizes with a client experiencing symptoms of anxiety, an Adlerian
    1. also empathize with the client.
    2. examine cognitive distortions.
    3. focus on extinguishing old behaviors.
    4. help the client develop coping strategies. *


  1. Adlerians are likely to view a woman with an eating disorder as
    1. being fixated in the oral stage of development.
    2. being overindulged as a child. (146)
    3. acting out masculine protest.
    4. not being sufficiently in touch with her bodily functions.




  1. Which of these therapies tends to work in the briefest time frame?
    1. Adlerian (148)
    2. gestalt
    3. person-centered
    4. self psychology


  1. Which of these therapists are most likely to seek out populations such as the homeless or those with AIDS to offer therapeutic services?
    1. Adlerians (150)
    2. gestaltists
    3. Jungians
    4. psychoanalysts


  1. Adler’s concept of ____________ is directly relevant to the application of gender issues to therapy.
    1. anima
    2. encouragement
    3. masculine protest (152)
    4. social interest


  1. When an Adlerian therapist comments on the anger in the voice of her client, she is using the Adlerian technique of
    1. (138)
    2. creating images.
    3. avoiding the tar baby.


  1. When Martha starts to back away from talking to her boss about a difficult problem, she remembers a technique that she learned in Adlerian therapy that helps her meet her goal of talking to her boss. The technique is called
    1. acting as if.
    2. catching oneself. (139)
    3. creating images.
    4. push button technique.


  1. Encouragement is most likely to be used by
    1. Adlerians (138)
    2. gestaltists
    3. Jungians
    4. psychoanalysts


  1. Developing programs within public schools is consistent with the views of
    1. (149)


  1. A group leader who summarizes members’ mistaken perceptions as well as their assets is most likely to be
    1. (154)
    2. person-centered.
    3. rational emotive behavioral (REBT).


  1. Moreno’s psychodrama approach is most similar to that of
    1. Adlerian therapy. (154)
    2. existential therapy.
    3. person-centered therapy.
    4. rational emotive behavioral therapy.


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